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Published July 28, 2022 | Version 5
Working paper Open

Effect of the Informed Health Choices digital secondary school resources on the ability of lower secondary students in Kenya to critically appraise health claims: protocol for a process evaluation

  • 1. Tropical Institute of Community health and Development in Africa
  • 2. University of Rwanda
  • 3. Makerere University
  • 4. Norwegian Institute of Public Health
  • 5. Oslo Metropolitan University
  • 6. Norwegian University of Science and Technology


Background: People frequently make decisions about what can improve their health. They do this based on large amounts of information that they get from different sources, which include claims about what harms or improves health. People therefore need skills to assess the trustworthiness of health claims. The Informed Health Choices (IHC) Key Concepts framework was used to develop the ‘Be Smart about your Health’ secondary school resources to help students in lower secondary to assess health claims about the effects of treatments. We are evaluating these resources in a cluster randomized trial in 80 lower secondary schools in Kenya. This protocol is for a process evaluation that will be conducted alongside the trial. The objective of this evaluation is to explore the extent to which the intervention was delivered as planned; understand factors that facilitated or hindered the delivery and impact of the resources; and antici-pated and unanticipated effects.

Study design: We will employ a mixed-methods design using quantitative and qualita-tive data. We will collect quantitative data from all schools (n=40) allocated to the in-tervention arm using lesson evaluation forms. Our qualitative data collection will in-clude: (a) structured classroom observations in all schools (n=40), with at least one lesson observed in each school. In a sample of eight schools, we shall observe more than one lesson. (b) We will conduct focus group discussions (with students (n=4), teachers (n=1) and parents (n=4). (c) Key informant interviews with policymakers in education (n=5), teachers (n=8), and with school principals (n=8)). We will purposively select these schools based on location (urban and rural) and ownership (private and public).

Data analysis: We will use framework analysis to analyze qualitative data and descrip-tive analysis to analyze quantitative data. We will summarize and appraise the confi-dence of the key findings from the qualitative data using a modified version of the GRADE-CERQual approach.


00 Kenya Process evaluation V5.pdf

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