Published December 5, 2022 | Version first version
Journal article Open

Development of a dedicated Golden Gate Assembly Platform (RtGGA) for Rhodotorula toruloides

  • 1. N.
  • 2. M.J.
  • 3. P.
  • 4. E.
  • 5. T.
  • 6. G.
  • 7. J.
  • 8. A.
  • 9. M.
  • 10. R.
  • 11. J.P.


Rhodotorula toruloides is a potential chassis for microbial cell factories as this yeast can metabolise different substrates into a diverse range of natural products, but the lack of efficient synthetic biology tools hinders its applicability. In this study, the modular, versatile and efficient Golden Gate DNA assembly system (RtGGA) was adapted to the first basidiomycete, an oleaginous yeast R. toruloides. R. toruloides CCT 0783 was sequenced, and used for the GGA design. The DNA fragments were assembled with predesigned 4-nt overhangs and a library of standardized parts was created containing promoters, genes, terminators, insertional regions, and resistance genes. The library was combined to create cassettes for the characterization of promoters strength and to overexpress the carotenoid production pathway. A variety of reagents, plasmids, and strategies were used and the RtGGA proved to be robust. The RtGGA was used to build three versions of the carotenoid overexpression cassette by using different promoter combinations. The cassettes were transformed into R. toruloides and the three new strains were characterized. Total carotenoid concentration increased by 41%. The dedicated GGA platform fills a gap in the advanced genome engineering toolkit for R. toruloides, enabling the efficient design of complex metabolic pathways.


Metabolic Engineering Communications, Volume 15, e00200 ISSN 22140301



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PERFECOAT – High Performance Bio-based Functional Coatings for Wood and Decorative Applications 101022370
European Commission