Published February 28, 2024 | Version v1
Journal article Open

Overprinting of TPU onto PA6 Substrates: The Influences of the Interfacial Area, Surface Roughness and Processing Parameters on the Adhesion between Components

Description

The hybridisation of injection moulding (IM) and additive manufacturing (AM) offers the opportunity to combine the high productivity of IM and the high flexibility of AM into a single process. IM parts can be overprinted through fused filament fabrication (FFF) to allow for the customisation of parts or to add new functionalities. However, the right material pair must be chosen, and processing parameters must be optimised to achieve suitable adhesion between the components. The present study dealt with the investigation of the influence of the interfacial area, substrate surface roughness and overprinting processing parameters on the adhesion between the polyamide 6 (PA6) substrate and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) rib overprinted via FFF. PA6 substrates were produced through the IM of plates into a mould with different textures to obtain substrates with three different surface roughnesses. The ribs with varied interfacial areas were overprinted onto produced substrates using a desktop FFF 3D printer. To study the effect of overprinting processing parameters, the ribs were overprinted under varying printing and substrate temperatures and printing speeds according to the Box–Behnken design of experiments (DoE). The chemical composition and thermal properties of used materials were determined via attenuated total reflectance–Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The surface properties of prepared substrates were studied via digital optical microscopy (OM), through surface roughness measurements using a confocal microscope, through contact angle (CA) measurements and through the determination of free surface energy (SFE). The adhesion between the components was determined by evaluating the tear-off strength using a universal testing machine (UTM). With an increasing interfacial area, the tear-off strength decreased, while substrate surface roughness had no statistically significant effect. Overprinting parameters influenced the tear-off strength in the order of printing speed > printing temperature > substrate temperature. High values of tear-off strength were found for the lowest printing speed, while there were no important differences found between the middle and upper values. With increasing printing and substrate temperatures, the tear-off strength increased linearly. The highest value of tear-off strength (0.84 MPa) was observed at a printing temperature, substrate temperature and printing speed of 250 °C, 80 °C and 2 mm/s, respectively.

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Additional details

Funding

IPPT_TWINN – REINFORCING THE SCIENTIFIC EXCELLENCE AND INNOVATION CAPACITY IN POLYMER PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES OF THE FACULTY OF POLYMER TECHNOLOGY 101079051
European Commission

Dates

Accepted
2024-02-22
Submitted
2024-01-15