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Co-production: a Connecting Nature Guidebook

Hölscher, Katharina; Frantzeskaki, Niki; Lodder, Marleen; Allaert, Kato; Notermans, Igno; Collier, Marcus J.

Co-production is a governance method that can be used by cities and other stakeholders when developing nature-based solutions in cities and for the good of cities. Not only does co-production foster collaboration and partnership but it stimulates learning among diverse actors – these actors could be civil servants, citizens, urban planners, entrepreneurs, architects, scientists, or engineers, to name but a few. In a co-production model, they contribute to the design, implementation, and management of nature-based solutions together.

Actors are not just consulted or informed, they are involved from the very beginning in the process. They have a role in the making of plans, infrastructure, and policy. The goal of co-production is to generate results that may be shared with all the actors. Examples of such results would be new ways to frame a problem, or new policies and visions. By bringing diverse actors together, co-production also results in new relationships. It can therefore mobilise and empower participants to create better and greener cities and communities.

Suggested citation: Hölscher, K., Frantzeskaki, N., Lodder, M., Allaert, K., Notermans, I., and Collier, M.J. (2022). Co-production: a Connecting Nature Guidebook. Brussels: DG Research and Innovation. DOI:
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