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GreenCharge Project Deliverable: D4.2 Final Architecture Design and Interoperability Specification

Natvig, Marit Kjøsnes; Jiang, Shanshan; Hallsteinsen, Svein; Subramanian, Arjun

This deliverable is the final version of the GreenCharge reference architecture. It supports the understanding of the GreenCharge concept and serves as a blueprint for planning and construction of systems and system components that together realise the concept. The modified and/or or added responsibilities and collaboration patterns necessary to support the concept are defined.

The GreenCharge concept is that electric vehicles, charge management and local energy management work together to facilitate a transport system running on green energy. Users of electric vehicles get charging support, and peaks in the power grid and grid investments are avoided through a balance of power. When many vehicles are plugged into the grid around the same time (e.g., on returning home from work), the energy management balances demand with available supplies. Supplies from local renewable energy sources and batteries in connected vehicles not in use may also be utilised. The concept also includes viable business and price models rewarding charging behaviour contributing to peak reductions.

The architecture description provided in this deliverable uses terms and concepts from the standard ISO/IEC/IEEE 42010 Systems and software engineering — Architecture description (ISO/IEC/IEEE 2011), and the deliverable is also structured according to recommendations from this standard.

The architecture description identifies the stakeholder types playing a role in the realisation of the GreenCharge concept and their motivations and concerns. The main stakeholder types are:

  • EV User. An electric vehicle (EV) User wants predictable access to and high availability of charge points, low mobility costs, and assistance for smart charging.
  • eMobility Provider (EMP). The EMP provides charging services to EV Users.
  • Charge Point Operator (CPO). The CPO operates the charging infrastructure.
  • Roaming Operator. The Roaming Operator facilitates the roaming of charging services between roaming endpoints (operated by EMPs and/or CPOs).
  • Local Energy Manager (LEM). The LEM facilitate optimal use of energy, considering the energy availability, local energy production, energy demands, and energy storage.

Different architecture views address different perspectives of the system of interest which is the integration of systems/system components that facilitate a realisation of the GreenCharge concept:

  • The context view provides a use case model describing the functionality needed by the stakeholders. A use case to service mapping model links the use cases to logical system components (services). An environment model defines the environment in which the solution will operate.
  • The requirement view defines generic and principal requirements for the realisation of the GreenCharge concept based on the overall concerns and functionality needed by the stakeholders.
  • The component view addresses how the logical system components collaborate and interact. An information model defines the information exchanged, a system component and interface model identify interfaces and messages, and a system collaboration model defines the interactions.
  • The deployment view provides examples of the view from the GreenCharge pilots.

The main innovations addressed by the reference architecture description are:

  • Public sharing of extended charge point (CP) information, available time slots included.
  • Advance booking of charge points. They can be booked several hours or days in advance.
  • Charging requests with energy demand and flexibility details, enabling smart energy management.
  • Smart charge planning support, facilitating the above innovations.
  • Charge planning as an integrated part of EV fleet management, for better resource utilisation.
  • V2G support with use of vehicle batteries in local energy management.
  • Integration of charge management in local energy management for smart and green charging.
  • Price models promoting desired behaviour, though economic rewarding and penalties.

Recommendations regarding standardisation needed to realise the GreenCharge concept are also provided with references to the relevant parts of the reference architecture.

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