Journal article Open Access

The Green Blockchains of Circular Economy

George Hatzivasilis; Sotiris Ioannidis; Konstantinos Fysarakis; George Spanoudakis; Nikos Papadakis

Eco-friendly systems are necessitated nowadays, as the global consumption is increasing.
A data-driven aspect is prominent, involving the Internet of Things (IoT) as the main enabler of a
Circular Economy (CE). Henceforth, IoT equipment records the system’s functionality, with machine
learning (ML) optimizing green computing operations. Entities exchange and reuse CE assets. Transparency is vital as the beneficiaries must track the assets’ history. This article proposes a framework
where blockchaining administrates the cooperative vision of CE-IoT. For the core operation, the
blockchain ledger records the changes in the assets’ states via smart contracts that implement the
CE business logic and are lightweight, complying with the IoT requirements. Moreover, a federated
learning approach is proposed, where computationally intensive ML tasks are distributed via a
second contract type. Thus, “green-miners” devote their resources not only for making money, but
also for optimizing operations of real-systems, which results in actual resource savings.

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