Journal article Embargoed Access
Pre-trained word embeddings encode general word semantics and lexical regularities of natural language, and have proven useful across many NLP tasks, including word sense disambiguation, machine translation, and sentiment analysis, to name a few. In supervised tasks such as multiclass text classification (the focus of this article) it seems appealing to enhance word representations with ad-hoc embeddings that encode task-specific information. We propose (supervised) word-class embeddings (WCEs), and show that, when concatenated to (unsupervised) pre-trained word embeddings, they substantially facilitate the training of deep-learning models in multiclass classification by topic. We show empirical evidence that WCEs yield a consistent improvement in multiclass classification accuracy, using six popular neural architectures and six widely used and publicly available datasets for multi- class text classification. One further advantage of this method is that it is conceptually simple and straightforward to implement. Our code that implements WCEs is publicly available at https://github.com/AlexMoreo/ word-class-embeddings.
Files are currently under embargo but will be publicly accessible after January 31, 2022.