Journal article Open Access

Anticovidian v.2 COVID-19: Hypothesis of the Lab Origin Versus a Zoonotic Event which can also be of a Lab Origin

Fernando Castro-Chavez


To treat the cause of a disease and not only its effects is of the utmost importance; hence, we need to know the origin of this pandemic of COVID-19, in order to be able, if possible, to prevent an event of such a nature and magnitude in the future, and to be able to avoid every sort of abuses to humanity, as it is happening right now. Bullet points here addressed are: 1) To have, inside the backbone of a virus from a bat (mostly ~97.55% of the viral RNA (by deducting the HIV inserts found by Perez, Montagnier and others), & as per the findings of Petrovsky, see below, and also to contrast the differences), the insertion similar to that of a pangolin virus for the Receptor Binding Domain (RBD, which basically consists of six separated key amino acids, or the 0.06% of its genome for these particular 18 nucleotides), being their receptor the ACE2 of the human lung, appearing at a time (as earlier as since September of 2019), were there were already mature all of the molecular methodologies necessary to modify individual nucleotides (Crispr-Cas9, “Seamless”, etc.) that then modify at will the resulting amino acids, with the possibility to give an extra passage to the virus through ferrets (or other lab animals) that have an ACE2 very similar to the humans, to give it then a more “natural” appearance (by random trivial changes); because, had it been natural, this could had required an animal host infected with these two viruses simultaneously, and that with an unexplainable marksmanship, to specifically modify the key six codons (and a second independent of such impossible recombinants, to give raise to the differences exclusively present at the end of the long Orf1ab, into the Nsf15 and Nsf16); 2) To have an even more important and unique peculiar site, PRRAR (encompassing the needed 12 bases to complete that sequence, being this the 0.04% of the full genome), for protease cleavage (new to Plasmin and Furin, plus Trypsin, TMRPSS2, etc.) inside the protein called Spike (S), to obtain the fragments S1 and S2 in order to allow the viral RNA to penetrate into the cell (expanding the range, not only to lung cells as the previous modification, but also to white and to neural cells), whose nucleotides producing it are highly strange to the rest of the viral sequence, because they contain more than an 83% of richness in its nucleotides GC, being these 12 nucleotides alien to the rest of the virus: CCUCGGCGGGCA (similar to bacterial and to methodological sequences patented by Moderna, Inc., cleavable by restriction enzymes BsaJI, AciI, Cac8I, MnlI…), that are engrained to the three remaining bases: CGU present in the frame of the bat virus to complete the necessary sequence. This will require, either a third virus completely unknown until now, either in the same utopian animal described before, or through a second passage of the first chimera into another animal, and then that such viral beast, could also be able to target exclusively this region, and no other site whatsoever; then, it is explored, 3) The biggest shot in variation, when it is compared to the first sequence obtained of the virus of COVID-19, with its immediate ancestor, that according to Shi Zheng-Li is the RaTG13 (submitted a posteriori of the COVID-19 first sequence, and which researchers demonstrate that this is a partially made-up sequence (see below), having her deliberately ignored even to cite her previous identical reference called BtCoV/4991 (2016), or even her most recent reference of the same that she put under the name of SARSr-CoV Ra4991 (2019), being very dishonest for her to change in at least three identified times the names of her same sequence, actions that render her highly suspicious, because she hid the rest of the sequence at least during the last four year (having been obtained from excrement in a cave, she says, after a call due to a serious case of miners infected at Yunnan, and nobody knows still what was inside those at least six miners), but her publishing it until now, after the emergence of a similar virus, makes her highly suspicious, rather than making her look innocent; and, who can say that she did not manipulate as well artificially such sequence, or that the CCP Chinese military did not do the same to the other two previous sequences that are also somehow similar to Sars-CoV-2?, and how many more hundreds of sequences will they be hiding?, because nobody independently has been able to verify the accuracy of their claims, being everything based only in what they say), given that the nucleotides of six proteins exhibit a 99% of similitude between both sequences, while twelve of them go down to a 96% or even are below of this number, being the most extreme changes, the ones that are inside the sequence for the protein Spike, which while exhibiting a global similitude of 93%, is the one having the highest discrepancy between the two sequences, and within this same one there are extreme shorter variations, with a low similitude of 44% on that specific of the RBD mentioned before, which goes down to some 17% for the region of those 18 key bases, and of only the 20% percent for that sequence of 12 bases for the resulting protease cleavage site; other changes include the optimal nucleotides of an even shorter region of 16 segments similar to immunodeficiency genes (plus two more distant ones), and even a couple of concatenated Plasmodium yoelii found by Perez and Montagnier at the S2 place, all that could be better explained with artificial processes already in place to do this and more within the frame of the awful Gain-of-Function sinister and dual-purpose (or double-talk) research. So, basically is their word against the world, and that is why since at least 2010 I have been proposing an independent verification by at least three other labs of results reported, specially by CCP Chinese researchers, as they did cost me already my first job in the US by their lying during at least ten years about a methodological artifact that I called “Palindromati”, and that they kept on reporting as “natural”, while receiving grants to explore a chimera, and how more is it costing their apparent lying about the artificial origin of COVID-19 at this time?) So, all of these points and so much more, because Jesse Morrell, for example, is reaching a set of almost 40 (and counting) evidences of a lab origin versus cero otherwise, things and persons that are leading us to conclude that it is evident to see that there was human intervention in the emergence of this Sars-CoV-2 virus, because in 2015-2018 there was not in existence any zoonotic history of any class in Wuhan, so, having been originated this virus already mature and fully capable to attack the human population, implies an artificial “injecting” source.

“…have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of DARKNESS, but rather expose them. For it is shameful even to speak of those things which are done by THEM in secret. But all things that are exposed are made manifest by the LIGHT...” An inspired Paul in Eph. 5:11-13.

Dedicated to Francis S. Collins, so as for the many to be able to see…

Files (2.3 MB)
Name Size
2.3 MB Download
  • Akst, J. Lab-Made Coronavirus Triggers Debate. The Scientist, 2015:

  • Andersen, K. G., et al. The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2. Nat. Med. 2020, 26:450–452:

  • Arumugham, V. Root cause of COVID-19? Biotechnology's dirty secret: Contamination. Bioinformatics evidence demonstrates that SARS-CoV-2 was created in a laboratory, unlikely to be a bioweapon but most likely a result of sloppy experiments. Zenodo 2020:9 pp. (Manuscript):, saved at:

  • Baron, S., Poast, J., and Cloyd, M. W. Why Is HIV Rarely Transmitted by Oral Secretions? Saliva Can Disrupt Orally Shed, Infected Leukocytes. Arch. Intern. Med. 1999, 159(3):303-10:

  • Becker, M. M., et al. Synthetic recombinant bat SARS-like coronavirus is infectious in cultured cells and in mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 2008, 105(50):19944–49:

  • Bolotin A., et al. 2005. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindrome repeats (CRISPRs) have spacers of extrachromosomal origin. Microbiology 151:2551–2561:

  • Castro-Chavez, F., et al. Coordinated upregulation of oxidative pathways and downregulation of lipid biosynthesis underlie obesity resistance in perilipin knockout mice: a microarray gene expression profile. Diabetes 2003, 52(11):2666-74:

  • Castro-Chavez F. The rules of variation: amino acid exchange according to the rotating circular genetic code. J. Theor. Biol. 2010, 264(3):711-21:

  • Castro-Chavez, F. Escaping the cut by restriction enzymes through single-strand self-annealing of host-edited 12-bp and longer synthetic palindromes. DNA Cell Biol. 2012, 31(2):151-63:

  • Castro-Chavez, F., et al. Effect of lyso-phosphatidylcholine and Schnurri-3 on osteogenic transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells to calcifying vascular cells in 3D culture. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 2013, 1830(6):3828-34:

  • Castro-Chavez, F. COVID-19: CCTCGGCGGGCACGT = PRRAR = AA Furin cleavage site at 23603-23617 of the MN908947 Genbank Genome Matches Mostly Bacteria & COVID-19 in BLAST! ResearchGate 2020b (2,062 readings at the 25th of June):

  • Castro-Chavez, F. Third Sequence: COVID-19: AATGGTACTAAGAGG = HIV-1 isolate 19663.24H9 from Netherlands envelope glycoprotein (env) gene, sequence ID: GU455503.1. ResearchGate 2020a (12,727 readings at the 25th of June):

  • Castro-Chavez, F. Fourth Sequence: COVID-19: TTG+90+TTT+18+CAATCA+18+AAT+9+TAC = L+F+QS+N+Y = Viral Pangolin Insert with Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) in a Virus of Bat. ResearchGate 2020c (397 readings at the 25th of June):

  • Chen, L., et al. RNA based mNGS approach identifies a novel human coronavirus from two individual pneumonia cases in 2019 Wuhan outbreak. Emerg. Microbes Infect. 2020; 9: 313–9:

  • Cheng, J., et al. The S2 Subunit of QX-type Infectious Bronchitis Coronavirus Spike Protein Is an Essential Determinant of Neurotropism. Viruses 2019, 11(10):972:

  • Crombie, A.C. Styles of Scientific Thinking in the European Tradition: The History of Argument and Explanation Especially in the Mathematical and Biomedical Sciences and Arts, Vol. 2. Duckworth 1994, 2456 p.:

  • Couey, J. J. (interviewed by Bill Gertz). Australian researchers see virus design manipulation. Washington Times 05/21/2020: Complete:, incomplete reference:

  • Cyranoski, D. The biggest mystery: what it will take to trace the coronavirus source. SARS-CoV-2 came from an animal but finding which one will be tricky, as will laying to rest speculation of a lab escape. Nature 2020:

  • Deigin, Y. Lab-Made? SARS-CoV-2 Genealogy Through the Lens of Gain-of-Function Research. Medium 2020:

  • Encinar J. A., Menendez J. A. Potential Drugs Targeting Early Innate Immune Evasion of SARS-Coronavirus 2 via 2'-O-Methylation of Viral RNA. Viruses 2020, 12(5):525:25 pp.:

  • Engelbrecht, R. S., et al. Comparative inactivation of viruses by Chlorine. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1980:40(2):249-56:

  • Feng, E. Critics Say China Has Suppressed And Censored Information In Coronavirus Outbreak (The Coronavirus Crisis). NPR, 2020:

  • Galdiero, S. et al. Silver Nanoparticles as Potential Antiviral Agents. Molecules 2011, 16(10):8894-8918:

  • Gallaher, W. R. and Gallaher, A. D. Wuhan Virus. Deja Vu 2020: 97 pp. (Self-published; sudden PDF downloads): ; and its update:

  • Gates Foundation. Bill and Melinda Gates Pledge $10 Billion in Call for Decade of Vaccines. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 2010 (Web):$10-Billion-in-Call-for-Decade-of-Vaccines

  • Gautret, P., et al. Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 2020:105949:25 pp. (Journal Pre-proof, it says there):

  • Ge, X. Y., et al. Coexistence of multiple coronaviruses in several bat colonies in an abandoned mineshaft. Virol. Sin. 2016, 31: 31–40:

  • Goldstein, M. R., Poland, G. A., and Graeber, C. W. Does apolipoprotein E genotype predict COVID-19 severity? QJM 2020: hcaa142:

  • Han, B. A., Kramer, A. M. and Drake, J. M. Global Patterns of Zoonotic Disease in Mammals. Trends Parasitol. 2016, 32(7):565–577:

  • Hemilä, H. Vitamin C and SARS coronavirus. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 2003, 52(6):1049-50:

  • Ho, T. Y., et al. Emodin blocks the SARS coronavirus spike protein and angiotensin‐converting enzyme 2 interaction. Antivir. Res. 2007, 74(2), 92–101.

  • Holland, L. A., et al. An 81 nucleotide deletion in SARS-CoV-2 ORF7a identified from sentinel surveillance in Arizona (Jan-Mar 2020). J. Virol. 2020:9 pp.:

  • Hong, S-T et al. The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 by an unusual genome reconstitution. ResearchSquare 2020 (Manuscript):8 pp.:

  • Hou, Y-x., et al. Immunogenicity of the Spike Glycoprotein of Bat SARS-like Coronavirus. Virol. Sin. 2010, 25(1):36-44:

  • Ji, H. L., et al. Elevated plasmin(ogen) as a common risk factor for covid-19 susceptibility. Physiol. Rev. 2020, 100:1065–1075:

  • Kály-Kullai, K. et al. Can chlorine dioxide prevent the spreading of coronavirus or other viral infections? Medical hypotheses (Editorial). Physiol. Int. 2020, 107:(1):11 pp.:

  • Kam, Y. W., et al. Cleavage of the SARS Coronavirus Spike Glycoprotein by Airway Proteases Enhances Virus Entry into Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells In Vitro. PLoS One 2009; 4(11):e7870:10 pp.:

  • Kawahara, T. et al. Inactivation of human and avian influenza viruses by potassium oleate of natural soap component through exothermic interaction. PLOS One 2018:

  • Kliger, Y. and Levanon, E. Y. Cloaked similarity between HIV-1 and SARS-CoV suggests an anti-SARS strategy. BMC Microbiol. 2003, 3:20:

  • Lake, J. E., and Adams, J. S. Vitamin D in HIV-Infected Patients. Curr. HIV/AIDS Rep. 2011, 8(3): 133-141.

  • Lam, T.T., et al. Identification of 2019-nCoV related coronaviruses in Malayan pangolins in southern China. BioRxiv 2020:22 pp:

  • La Rinda, A., et al. An 81 nucleotide deletion in SARS-CoV-2 ORF7a identified from sentinel surveillance in Arizona (Jan-Mar 2020). J. Virol. 2020:9 pp.:

  • Latham, J. & Wilson, A. A Proposed Origin for SARS-CoV-2 and the COVID-19 Pandemic. Indep. Sci. News 2020 (Web):

  • Lauc, G. et al. Fighting COVID-19 with water. JoGH 2020, 10(1):010344:3 pp.:

  • Leitenberg, M. Did the SARS-CoV-2 virus arise from a bat coronavirus research program in a Chinese laboratory? Very possibly. Bull. Atom. Sci. June 4, 2020 (Web):

  • Li, B. Q., et al. Flavonoid Baicalin Inhibits HIV-1 Infection at the Level of Viral Entry. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2000, 276(2):534-8:

  • Lin, X. and Chen, S. Major Concerns on the Identification of Bat Coronavirus Strain RaTG13 and Quality of Related Nature Paper. Preprints 2020:8 pp. (Manuscript)

  • Lindequist, U., Niedermeyer, T. H. J., and Jülich, W.-D. The Pharmacological Potential of Mushrooms. Evid. Based Complement Alternat. Med. 2005, 2(3):285-89:

  • Liu, Z., et al. Identification of a common deletion in the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. BioRxiv 2020:9 pp.:

  • Manzourolajdad, A., Xu, Z. and Ebrahimi, D. Novel Polybasic Cleavage Site in SARS-CoV-2 Genome Is Likely to Induce a Major Change in the RNA Secondary Structure. Preprints 2020:12 pp.:

  • McHugh, et al. Biocompatible Near-Infrared Quantum Dots Delivered to the Skin by Microneedle Patches Record Vaccination. Sci. Transl. Med. 2019, 11(523):eaay7162. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aay7162:

  • Menachery, V.D., et al. A SARS-like cluster of circulating bat coronaviruses shows potential ("poses threat" in the manuscript) for human emergence. Nature Med. 2015, 21(12):1508–1513: Final version:; Manuscript:, and is criticism in Nature:, plus a last correction (the release after five years of retaining it, of the SHC014-CoV sequence MT308984):

  • Miraj, S. and Alesaeidi, S. A systematic review study of therapeutic effects of Matricaria recuitta chamomile (chamomile). Electron. Physician 2016, 8(9):3024-31:

  • Miura, T. and Shibata, T. Antiviral Effect of Chlorine Dioxide against Influenza Virus and Its Application for Infection Control. TOANTIMJ 2010, 2:71-78:

  • Morrell, J. The Wuhan Lab and the Mad Science Dr. Fauci Funded. Lulu 2020: 753 pp. (An earlier manuscript can be found at):

  • Mulraney, F. and Owen, G. U.S. government gave 3.7 million grant to Wuhan lab at center of coronavirus leak scrutiny. Daily Mail 2020 (Web):

  • Nance, C. L., Siwak, E. B., Shearer, W. T. Preclinical Development of the Green Tea Catechin, Epigallocatechin Gallate, as an HIV-1 Therapy. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2009, 123(2):459-65:

  • Nerd Has Power. RaTG13 – the undeniable evidence that the Wuhan coronavirus is man-made. Weebly 2020:

  • Observer, T. China clamping down on coronavirus research, deleted pages suggest. The Guardian, 2020 (Web):

  • Ocke-Reis, P. E. and Braga-Lima, M. C. Can we manage prophylactic therapy in COVID-19 patients to prevent severe illness complications? J. Vasc. Bras. 2020, 19:e2020005:

  • Ogata, N. and Shibata, T. Protective Effect of Low-Concentration Chlorine Dioxide Gas Against Influenza A Virus Infection. J. Gen. Virol. 2008; 89(Pt 1):60-67:

  • Ogata, N., et al. Inactivation of Airborne Bacteria and Viruses Using Extremely Low Concentrations of Chlorine Dioxide Gas. Pharmacology 2016, 97(5-6):301-6:

  • Panon, G., Tache, S., & C. Labie. Antiviral Substances in Raw Bovine Milk Active Against Bovine Rotavirus and Coronavirus. J. Food Prot. 1987, 50(10):862-866:

  • Perez, J.-C., and Montagnier, L. COVID-19, SARS and Bats Coronaviruses Genomes Unexpected Exogenous RNA Sequences. ResearchGate & OSF 2020:43 pp. [Old Manuscript]: (see the reference for the new one in the last paragraph of this article, below). The final version: Perez, J. C., & Montagnier, L. (2020). COVID-19, SARS AND BATS CORONAVIRUSES GENOMES PECULIAR HOMOLOGOUS RNA SEQUENCES. International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH, 8(7), 217-263. [Final Article]: and

  • Pinghui, Z. Chinese laboratory that first shared coronavirus genome with world ordered to close for 'rectification', hindering its Covid-19 research. South China Morning Post 2020 (Web):

  • Piplani S., Singh P. K., Winkler D. A., Petrovsky N. In silico comparison of spike protein-ACE2 binding affinities across species; significance for the possible origin of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Arxiv 2020:34 pp. (Manuscript):

  • Pradhan, P. et al. Uncanny similarity of unique inserts in the 2019-nCoV spike protein to HIV-1 gp120 and Gag. Biorxiv 2020: 14 pp. (Withdrawn, 128 comments):

  • Qu, XX, et al. Identification of two critical amino acid residues of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein for its variation in zoonotic tropism transition via a double substitution strategy. J. Biol. Chem. 2005; 280(33):29588-95:

  • Reich, E. N. and Church, J. A. Oral Zinc Supplementation in the Treatment of HIV-infected Children. Pediatr. AIDS HIV Infect. 1994, 5(6):357-60:

  • Ren, W., et al. Difference in Receptor Usage between Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Coronavirus and SARS-Like Coronavirus of Bat Origin. J. Virol. 2008. 82(4):1899–1907:

  • Risch, H. A. Early Outpatient Treatment of Symptomatic, High-Risk Covid-19 Patients that Should be Ramped-Up Immediately as Key to the Pandemic Crisis. Amer. J. Epidemiol. 27 May 2020:

  • Rozo, M. and Gronvall, G. K. The Reemergent 1977 H1N1 Strain and the Gain-of-Function Debate. mBio 2015, 6(4):e01013-15

  • Segreto, R. Is considering a genetic-manipulation origin for SARS-CoV-2 a conspiracy theory that must be censored? ResearchGate 2020:

  • Sheahan, T., et al. Pathways of cross-species transmission of synthetically reconstructed zoonotic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. J. Virol. 2008; 82(17):8721–8732:

  • Shevidi, S. et al. Single nucleotide editing without DNA cleavage using CRISPR/Cas9-deaminase in the sea urchin embryo. Dev. Dyn. 2017, 246(12):1036–1046:

  • Sims, A. C., et al. Release of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nuclear import block enhances host transcription in human lung cells. J. Virol. 2013; 87(7):3885–3902:

  • Sirotkin, K. and Sirotkin D.:,,, 2020a, b and c (Web).

  • Sørensen, B., Susrud, A. and Dalgleish, A.G. Biovacc-19: A Candidate Vaccine for Covid-19 (SARS-CoV-2) Developed from Analysis of its General Method of Action for Infectivity. QRB Discovery (by Cambridge University Press) 2020a:17 pp [Accepted Manuscript]:

  • Sørensen, B., Dagleish, A. and Susrud, A.The Evidence which Suggests that This Is No Naturally Evolved Virus. A Reconstructed Historical Aetiology of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike. Minervanett 2020:8 pp.:

  • Stone, C. A., et al. The Role of Selenium in HIV Infection. Nutr. Rev. 2010, 68(11):671-81:

  • Stout, T. R. A rebuttal to "The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2": Covid-19 is plausibly from a manmade virus. Emergency regulatory reform for stopping epidemics. OSF 2020:19 pp (Manuscript):

  • Su, Y.C.F., et al., Discovery of a 382-nt deletion during the early evolution of SARS-CoV-2. BioRxiv 2020:23 pp.:

  • Szilágyi, A. A mathematically related singularity and the maximum size of protein domains. Proteins 2008, 71(4):2086-8; discussion 2089-90:

  • Vincent, M. J. et al. Chloroquine Is a Potent Inhibitor of SARS Coronavirus Infection and Spread. Virol. J. 2005, 2:69:

  • Wang, N., et al. Serological Evidence of Bat SARS-Related Coronavirus Infection in Humans, China. Virol. Sin. 2018, 33:104–107:

  • Wang, N., et al. Characterization of a New Member of Alphacoronavirus With Unique Genomic Features in Rhinolophus Bats. Viruses 2019, 11(4):379, 19 pp.:

  • Watanabe, R. et al. Entry from the Cell Surface of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus with Cleaved S Protein as Revealed by Pseudotype Virus Bearing Cleaved S Protein. J. Virol. 2008, 82(23):11985–91:

  • Weiss, G. et al. Lactobacillus acidophilus induces virus immune defence genes in murine dendritic cells by a Toll-like receptor-2-dependent mechanism. Immunology 2010, 131(2): 268–281:

  • Wu, C., et al. Furin, a potential therapeutic target for COVID-19. ChinArxiv 2020a:34 pp.:

  • Wu, C., et al. Analysis of Therapeutic Targets for SARS-CoV-2 and Discovery of Potential Drugs by Computational Methods. Acta Pharm. Sin. B. 2020b:

  • Yamada, Y. and Liu, D. X. Proteolytic Activation of the Spike Protein at a Novel RRRR/S Motif Is Implicated in Furin-Dependent Entry, Syncytium Formation, and Infectivity of Coronavirus Infectious Bronchitis Virus in Cultured Cells. J. Virol. 2009:83(17):8744-58:

  • Yount, B., et al. Reverse genetics with a full-length infectious cDNA of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 2003, 100(22):12995-13000:

  • Zeng, L.-P., et al. Bat Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Like Coronavirus WIV1 Encodes an Extra Accessory Protein, ORFX, Involved in Modulation of the Host Immune Response. J. Virol. 2016, 90(14):6573-82:

  • Zhan, S. H., Deverman, B. E., Chan, Y. A. SARS-CoV-2 is well adapted for humans. What does this mean for re-emergence? BioRxiv 2020:28 pp.:

  • Zhang, X. W. and Yap, Y. L. Structural similarity between HIV-1 gp41 and SARS-CoV S2 proteins suggests an analogous membrane fusion mechanism. Theochem. 2004, 677(1):73–76:

  • Zhao, G., et al. A safe and convenient pseudovirus-based inhibition assay to detect neutralizing antibodies and screen for viral entry inhibitors against the novel human coronavirus MERS-CoV. Virol. J. 2013, 10:266: 8 pp.:

  • Zhou, H., et al. A Novel Bat Coronavirus Closely Related to SARSCoV-2 Contains Natural Insertions at the S1/S2 Cleavage Site of the Spike Protein. Curr. Biol. 2020:(30):1-8:

  • Zhou, P., plus 27 et als & Zheng-Li Shi. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature (Owned by CCP, China) 2020:579:270-73, & 16pp:

All versions This version
Views 4,2644,264
Downloads 1,7551,755
Data volume 4.1 GB4.1 GB
Unique views 3,8773,877
Unique downloads 1,6471,647


Cite as