Journal article Open Access
In this paper, spatial modulation (SM) is introduced to layered division multiplexing (LDM) systems for enlarging the spectral efficiency (SE) over broadcasting transmission. First, the SM aided LDM (SM-LDM) system is proposed, in which different layered services utilize SM for terrestrial broadcasting transmission with different power levels. Then a SE analysis framework for SM-LDM systems is proposed, which is suitable for the SM-LDM systems with linear combining. Moreover, the closed-form SE lower bound of SM-LDM systems with maximum ratio combining (MRC) is derived, which is based on this framework. Since the theoretical SE analysis of single
transmit antenna (TA) LDM systems with MRC and spatial multiplexing (SMX) aided LDM systems with MRC lacks a closed-form expression, the closed-form SE is also derived for these systems. Monte Carlo simulations are provided to verify the tightness of our proposed SE lower bound. Furthermore, it can be shown via simulations that our proposed SM-LDM systems always have a better SE performance than single-TA LDM systems, which can even outperform the SE of SMX aided LDM (SMX-LDM) systems.