Journal article Open Access

Imaging of microglial activation in MS using PET: Research use and potential future clinical application.

Airas, Laura; Rissanen, Eero; Rinne, Juha

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex disease, where several processes can be selected as a target for positron emission topography (PET) imaging. Unlike magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), PET provides specific and quantitative information, and unlike neuropathology, it can be non-invasively applied to living patients, which enables longitudinal follow-up of the MS pathology. In the study of MS, PET can be useful for in vivo evaluation of specific pathological characteristics at various stages of the disease. Increased understanding of the progressive MS pathology will enhance the treatment options of this undertreated condition. The ultimate goal of developing and expanding PET in the study of MS is to have clinical non-invasive in vivo imaging biomarkers of neuroinflammation that will help to establish prognosis and accurately measure response to therapeutics. This topical review provides an overview of the promises and challenges of the use of PET in MS.

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