Published September 19, 2008 | Version v1
Journal article Open

Selenium in Edible Mushrooms


Seleniumisvitaltohumanhealth.Thisarticleisacompendiumofvirtuallyallthepublished data on total selenium concentrations, its distribution in fruitbody, bioconcentration factors, and chemical forms in wild-grown, cultivated, and selenium-enriched mushrooms worldwide. Of the 190 species reviewed (belonging to 21 families and 56 genera), most are considered edible, and a few selected data relate to inedible mushrooms. Most of edible mushroom species examined until now are selenium-poor (< 1 µg Se/g dry weight). The fruitbody of some species of wild-grown edible mushrooms is naturally rich in selenium; their occurrence data are reviewed, along with information on their suitability as a dietary source of selenium for humans, the impact of cooking and possible leaching out, the significance of traditional mushroom dishes, and the element's absorption rates and co-occurrence with some potentially problematic elements. The Goat's Foot (Albatrellus pes-caprae) with∼ 200 µg Se/g dw on average (maximum up to 370 µg/g dw) is the richest one in this element among the species surveyed. Several other representatives of the genus Albatrellus are also abundant in selenium. Of the most popular edible wild-grown mushrooms, the King Bolete (Boletus edulis) is considered abundant in selenium as well; on average, it contains ∼ 20 µg Se/g dw (maximum up to 70 µg/g dw). Some species of the genus Boletus, such as B. pinicola, B. aereus, B. aestivalis, B. erythropus, andB. appendiculus, can also accumulate considerable amounts of selenium. Some other relatively rich sources of selenium include the European Pine Cone Lepidella (Amanita strobiliformis), which contains, on average, ∼ 20 µg Se/g dw (up to 37µg/g dw); the Macrolepiota spp., with an average range of ∼ 5 to< 10 µg/g dw (an exception is M. rhacodes with < 10 µg/g dw); and the Lycoperdon spp., with an average of ∼ 5 µg Se/g dw. For several wild-grown species of the genus Agaricus, the selenium content (∼5 µg/g dw) is much greater than that from cultivated Champignon Mushroom; these include A. bisporus, A. bitorquis, A. campestris, A. cesarea, A. edulis, A. macrosporus, andA. silvaticus. A particularly rich source of selenium could be obtained from selenium-enriched mushrooms that are cultivated on a substrate fortified with selenium (as inorganic salt or selenized-yeast). The Se-enriched Champignon Mushroom could contain up to 30 or 110 µg Se/g dw, while the Varnished Polypore (Ganoderma lucidum) could contain up to 72µg Se/g dw. An increasingly growing database on chemical forms of selenium of mushrooms indicates that the seleno-compounds identified in carpophore include selenocysteine, selenomethionine, Se-methylselenocysteine, selenite, and several unidentified selenocompounds; their proportions vary widely. Some aspects of environmental selenium occurrence and human body pharmacokinetics and nutritional needs will also be briefly discussed in this review.



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