Published September 7, 2023 | Version v1
Journal article Open

Introduction to the Chemistry of Alternative Battery Technologies: Survey of Liquid Electrolytes in Next Generation, Fluoride-Ion Batteries

  • 1. Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, CA
  • 2. Chemistry Department, Pasadena City College, CA


Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are central in modern life, where they are found in products from smartphones to laptops to electric vehicles. The demand for efficient and sustainable batteries is higher than ever, with the predicted depletion of lithium sources after 2050 [1-3]. As an alternative to LIBs, next-generation fluoride-ion batteries (FIBs) are now being studied since fluorine is more abundant than lithium. While the majority of FIBs reported use solid electrolytes, liquid electrolytes are of interest for room-temperature applications and they are the focus of this article. This article begins by providing a concise background on specific concepts of battery chemistry that can be used as a basis to expand micro/nanotechnology education curricula to include alternative battery technologies. Key points on defining battery components, battery capacity, and redox reactions at play (including differences between redox reactions in LIBs vs FIBs) are presented. A survey on recent developments of liquid electrolytes in FIBs is derived, where three chemical strategies for designing liquid electrolytes for FIB are determined. This analysis of FIB liquid electrolytes studied so far provides a perspective to holistically improve room-temperature FIBs by tailoring the anode, cathode, and electrolyte combination. Ultimately, the survey of literature developed in the article can have an exemplary role in bibliographic research on alternative battery technologies for students in secondary, two-year, or four-year higher education institutions.


E. Vasileiadou_Final_DOI_09052023.pdf

Files (617.5 kB)

Name Size Download all
617.5 kB Preview Download

Additional details


The Micro Nano Technology Education Center (MNT-EC) 2000281
National Science Foundation