Diversity-Oriented Teachers for Vocational Education. Analysis and Mod-elling of Competence Requirements for Teacher Education and Training
Context: Changes in the context of a diverse labour market pose major challenges for European VET. VET research can make an important contribution by sharing proven approaches. Dealing with diversity is addressed by different concepts that focus on individual factors or diversity as a whole. The perspective on diversity and the distribution of roles in educational institutions vary depending on the concept. Inclusion and exclusion are interrelated, and inclusive competences help to reduce exclusion. Sensitisation and professionalisation of VET staff are therefore necessary. The article examines the competence requirements for an inclusive approach to diversity in teacher education for vocational schools.
Approach: The aim of the paper is to formulate dimensions for a framework for teacher education at VET schools in the context of diversity orientation in order to contribute to inclusive, equitable and quality vocational education/training. In a qualitative literature analysis, a theoretical classification of the concepts of competence, the structure of competence models and their conceptualisation in teacher education in general and those focused on diversity-orientation took place. In an analysis of teacher education models, competences related to managing diversity and inclusion were derived. The categories “attitudes”, “knowledge”, and “skills” were found to be target-orientated for the assignment of competence requirements.
Findings: The results can be classified well along the defined main categories. Attitudes and internalised values (1) influence motivation, while readiness to act, self-efficacy and self-regulation are crucial for the implementation of appropriate strategies in the classroom. Teachers' knowledge (2) can be divided into basic knowledge areas, such as inclusive education and diversity-oriented didactics, and specialised knowledge. The latter is relevant in specific situations or for specific learners. Skills and abilities (3) can be divided into the fields of organisational development, cooperation with partners and diversity-oriented methodology and didactics.
Conclusion: The presented framework for competence dimensioning and structuring can help in curriculum development in teacher education. Inclusion-oriented dealing with diversity requires a combination of competences that have to be developed situationally. It is recommended to consider inclusion and diversity as a cross-cutting competence for all teachers. Future research projects should focus on the acquisition of sub-competences in different phases of teacher education and their impact on teaching. Intersectional knowledge should be considered in the reflection and further development of teaching concepts. For this, evidence-based research and international exchange can contribute to an inclusion-oriented approach to diversity.