Published July 30, 2023 | Version 1
Preprint Open

How to arm a castle: the 1346 ordonnance of Bioule


The study presents the first full English translation of the 1346 ordonnance describing the defenses of the Bioule castle (Tarn-et-Garonne, France). This is one of the most specific documents on the organization of medieval castle defense to have survived to this day, presenting a nearly exhaustive picture of the exact locations of various pieces of artillery with accessories and ammunition, their crews and other soldiers of the garrison. The various aspects of Bioule castle defenses are discussed and visualized on the castle plan.


How to arm a castle - the 1346 ordonnance of Bioule.pdf

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