Published July 6, 2023 | Version v1
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Effects of early predation and social cues on the relationship between laterality and personality in the Threespined stickleback

  • 1. Macquarie University
  • 2. University of Groningen


Individual differences in laterality and personality are expected to covary, as emotions are processed differently by the two hemispheres and personality involves emotional behavior. Fish species are often used to investigate this topic due to the large variability in personality and laterality patterns. While some species show a positive relationship between lateralization strength and boldness, others show a negative relationship, and some show no relationship. To investigate whether this relationship follows changes in laterality and personality, we conducted a fully factorial design experiment manipulating predation and group size during early development. Results showed that the strength of laterality was influenced by predation threat, while social tendency and boldness were influenced by group size. These findings suggest that early life conditions can have an impact on laterality and social behavior. The relationship between laterality and personality traits, while present, was heavily influenced by the specific trial conditions, but not by the different developmental conditions.


The files are .xlsx and .docx. An R project with all the statistical analysis is included (.Rproj, .RData and .Rhistory).

Funding provided by: Macquarie University
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Funding provided by: Rijksuniversiteit Groningen
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10.5281/zenodo.8100454 (DOI)