Published November 28, 2022 | Version author version, camera ready
Conference paper Open

Ground Directional Protection Assessment in Inverter Dominated Distribution Networks

  • 1. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, KIOS Research and Innovation Center of Excellence, University of Cyprus Transmission System Operator Cyprus
  • 2. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, KIOS Research and Innovation Center of Excellence, University of Cyprus


Inverter-Based Resources (IBRs) are challenging traditional line protection systems, that have been designed and developed over the years considering the fault characteristics of synchronous generator dominated power systems. The response of IBRs under faults is mainly driven by the inverter control design that can vary across different manufacturers. This study focuses in assessing the performance of negative and zero sequence voltage polarized ground directional elements in a Medium Voltage (MV) distribution grid with increased penetration of Photovoltaic (PV) systems. A system has been developed, modelling a part of a distribution grid and utilizing detailed Electro Magnetic Transient (EMT) models to emulate the behavior of IBRs. The design of the substation protection scheme includes an 11 kV blocking scheme employing ground directional elements. The system is simulated in a real time environment and Hardware In the Loop (HIL) tests are performed with actual protection relays utilizing the industry standard IEC 61850 protocol for the communications. The performance of the blocking scheme is examined under different configuration scenarios, with the results indicating that under certain conditions, with heavy IBR fault contributions, the protection scheme is impacted negatively.


© 2022 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works. C. Frangeskou, L. Hadjidemetriou, M. Asprou and C. Panayiotou, "Ground Directional Protection Assesment in Inverter Dominated Distribution Networks," 2022 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference Europe (ISGT-Europe), Novi Sad, Serbia, 2022, pp. 1-5, doi: 10.1109/ISGT-Europe54678.2022.9960683.



Files (854.8 kB)

Name Size Download all
854.8 kB Preview Download

Additional details


OneNet – One Network for Europe 957739
European Commission
SMART5GRID – Smart5Grid - Demonstration of 5G solutions for SMART energy GRIDs of the future 101016912
European Commission
KIOS CoE – KIOS Research and Innovation Centre of Excellence 739551
European Commission