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Published November 7, 2022 | Version v2.02
Dataset Open

Global Bee Interaction Data

  • 1. University of California Santa Barbara


Last modified: November 7, 2022

This dataset comprises all bee interactions indexed by [Global Biotic Interactions]( (GloBI; Poelen et al. 2014). It is published quarterly by the [Big Bee Project]( (Seltmann et al. 2021) to summarize all available knowledge about bee interactions from natural history collections, community science observations (i.e., iNaturalist), and the literature. Interactions include flower visitation, parasitic interactions (mite, viral), lecty, and many others.

Data Description
Please see the [integration process page]( to better understand how Global Biotic Interactions combines datasets from various sources. The complete interaction dataset for all species can be accessed via and the GloBI Community Zenodo publication (

Data is filtered for unique records based on the interaction description and source citation. Archives contain full data records and unique filtered records in tab-delimited format.

Dataset column name definitions or



Total bee records

07-17-2020 232,906
01-24-2021 257,738
11-17-2021 226,160
06-01-2022 286,818
11-07-2022 429,308


Date Andrenidae Apidae Colletidae Halictidae
07-17-2020 73,463 106,222 20,821 58,880
01-24-2021 77,824 120,919 21,376 63,945
11-17-2021 25,535 134,517 10,568 43,070
06-01-2022 78,016 144,827 20,409 64,054
11-07-2022 84,172 171,378 30,792 79,155


Date Megachilidae Melittidae Stenotritidae
07-17-2020 44,449 2,511 23
01-24-2021 48,856 2,624 18
11-17-2021 37,001 995 9
06-01-2022 54,516 2,994 18
11-07-2022 61,391 2,396 24

Included Resources

count source citation

A. Thessen. 2014. Species associations extracted from EOL text data objects via text mining.


Agosti, Donat. 2020. Transcription of Linné, C. von, 1758. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Available at: .


Aja Sherman, Cullen Geiselman. 2021. Bat Co-Roosting Database


Allen Hurlbert. 2017. Avian Diet Database.


Arizona State University Hasbrouck Insect Collection


Ballantyne, Gavin; Baldock, Katherine C. R.; Willmer, Pat G. (2015), Data from: Constructing more informative plant-pollinator networks: visitation and pollen deposition networks in a heathland plant community, Dryad, Dataset,


Barnes, C. et al., 2008. Predator and prey body sizes in marine food webs. Ecology, 89(3), pp.881–881. Available at: . Data provided by Carolyn Barnes. Also available at .


Bartomeus, Ignasi (2013): Plant-Pollinator Network Data. figshare. Dataset.


Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, J. Linsley Gressitt Center for Research in Entomology


Brose, U. (2018). GlobAL daTabasE of traits and food Web Architecture (GATEWAy) version 1.0 [Data set]. German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig.


Brose, U. et al., 2005. Body sizes of consumers and their resources. Ecology, 86(9), pp.2545–2545. Available at:


California Academy of Sciences Entomology


Carril OM, Griswold T, Haefner J, Wilson JS. (2018) Wild bees of Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument: richness, abundance, and spatio-temporal beta-diversity. PeerJ 6:e5867


Classen, Alice; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf (2020): Plant-pollinator interactions along an elevational gradient on Mt. Kilimanjaro. PANGAEA,


Cohen JM, Sauer EL, Santiago O, Spencer S, Rohr JR. 2020. Divergent impacts of warming weather on wildlife disease risk across climates. Science. doi:10.1126/science.abb1702


Cristina Preda and Quentin Groom. 2014. Species associations manually extracted from literature.


David W. Thieltges, Karsten Reise, Kim N. Mouritsen, John P. McLaughlin, and Robert Poulin. 2011. Food web including metazoan parasites for a tidal basin in Germany and Denmark. Ecology 92:2005.


Del Risco, A.A., Montoya, Á.M., García, V. et al. Data synthesis and dynamic visualization converge into a comprehensive biotic interaction network: a case study of the urban and rural areas of Bogotá D.C.. Urban Ecosyst (2021).


Eardley C, Coetzer W. 2016. Catalogue of Afrotropical Bees.


Ed Baker; Ian J. Kitching; George W. Beccaloni; Amoret Whitaker et al. (2016). Dataset: NHM Interactions Bank. Natural History Museum Data Portal (


Ferrer-Paris, José R.; Sánchez-Mercado, Ada Y.; Lozano, Cecilia; Zambrano, Liset; Soto, José; Baettig, Jessica; Leal, María (2014): A compilation of larval host-plant records for six families of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea) from available electronic resources. figshare.


Field Museum of Natural History IPT


Food Webs and Species Interactions in the Biodiversity of UK and Ireland (Online). 2017. Data provided by Malcolm Storey. Also available from


Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. 2018. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication., version (10/2018).


Frost Entomological Museum, Pennsylvania State University


Gandhi, K. J. K., & Herms, D. A. (2009). North American arthropods at risk due to widespread Fraxinus mortality caused by the Alien Emerald ash borer. Biological Invasions, 12(6), 1839–1846. doi:10.1007/s10530-009-9594-1.


Geiselman, Cullen K. & Sarah Younger. 2020. Bat Eco-Interactions Database.


Geiselman, Cullen K. and Tuli I. Defex. 2015. Bat Eco-Interactions Database.


Giselle Muschett & Francisco E. Fontúrbel. 2021. A comprehensive catalogue of plant – pollinator interactions for Chile


Global Web Database ( an online collection of food webs. Accessed via on 2017-10-12.


Groom, Q.J., Maarten De Groot, M. & Marčiulynienė, D. (2020) Species interation data manually extracted from literature for species .


Grundler MC (2020) SquamataBase: a natural history database and R package for comparative biology of snake feeding habits. Biodiversity Data Journal 8: e49943.


Gunther KA et al. 2014 Dietary breadth of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Ursus 25(1):60-72


Harvard University M, Morris P J (2021). Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University. Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University.


Illinois Natural History Survey Insect Collection


Jakovos Demetriou and Quentin Groom 2014. Species associations of Sceliphron manually extracted from literature.


Jorrit H. Poelen. 2017. Species interactions associated with known species interaction datasets.


LaManna, JA, Burkle, LA, Belote, RT, Myers, JA. Biotic and abiotic drivers of plant–pollinator community assembly across wildfire gradients. J Ecol. 2020; 00: 1– 14. .


Mihara, T., Nishimura, Y., Shimizu, Y., Nishiyama, H., Yoshikawa, G., Uehara, H., Hingamp, P., Goto, S., and Ogata, H.; Linking virus genomes with host taxonomy. Viruses 8, 66 doi:10.3390/v8030066 (2016).


Museum for Southwestern Biology (MSB) Parasite Collection


Mycology Collections Data Portal (MyCoPortal). 2020.


National Database Plant Pollinators. Center for Plant Conservation at San Diego Zoo Global. Accessed via on 2020-06-05.


National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution IPT RSS Feed


Natural History Collections managed by Arctos ( accessed via .


Olito, Colin; Fox, Jeremy W. (2015), Data from: Species traits and abundances predict metrics of plant–pollinator network structure, but not pairwise interactions, Dryad, Dataset, 


Ollerton, J., Trunschke, J. ., Havens, K. ., Landaverde-González, P. ., Keller, A. ., Gilpin, A.-M. ., Rodrigo Rech, A. ., Baronio, G. J. ., Phillips, B. J., Mackin, C. ., Stanley, D. A., Treanore, E. ., Baker, E. ., Rotheray, E. L., Erickson, E. ., Fornoff, F. ., Brearley, F. Q. ., Ballantyne, G. ., Iossa, G. ., Stone, G. N., Bartomeus, I. ., Stockan, J. A., Leguizamón, J., Prendergast, K. ., Rowley, L., Giovanetti, M., de Oliveira Bueno, R., Wesselingh, R. A., Mallinger, R., Edmondson, S., Howard, S. R., Leonhardt, S. D., Rojas-Nossa, S. V., Brett, M., Joaqui, T., Antoniazzi, R., Burton, V. J., Feng, H.-H., Tian, Z.-X., Xu, Q., Zhang, C., Shi, C.-L., Huang, S.-Q., Cole, L. J., Bendifallah, L., Ellis, E. E., Hegland, S. J., Straffon Díaz, S., Lander, T. A. ., Mayr, A. V., Dawson, R. ., Eeraerts, M. ., Armbruster, W. S. ., Walton, B. ., Adjlane, N. ., Falk, S. ., Mata, L. ., Goncalves Geiger, A. ., Carvell, C. ., Wallace, C. ., Ratto, F. ., Barberis, M. ., Kahane, F. ., Connop, S. ., Stip, A. ., Sigrist, M. R. ., Vereecken, N. J. ., Klein, A.-M., Baldock, K. ., & Arnold, S. E. J. . (2022). Pollinator-flower interactions in gardens during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown of 2020. Journal of Pollination Ecology, 31, 87–96.


Paleo Digitization Working Group. Biological associations extracted from fossil specimens.


Palomares, M.L.D. and D. Pauly. Editors. 2018. SeaLifeBase. World Wide Web electronic publication., version (10/2018).


Pensoft Darwin Core Archives available via Integrated Publication Toolkit


Pensoft Darwin Core Archives with associateTaxa columns


Pinnegar, J.K. (2014). DAPSTOM - An Integrated Database & Portal for Fish Stomach Records. Version 4.7. Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science, Lowestoft, UK. February 2014, 39pp.


Pocock, Michael J. O.; Evans, Darren M.; Memmott, Jane (2012), Data from: The robustness and restoration of a network of ecological networks, Dryad, Dataset,


Portalier, Sebastien; Fussmann, Gregor; Loreau, Michel; Cherif, Mehdi (2018), Data from: The mechanics of predator-prey interactions: first principles of physics predict predator-prey size ratios, Dryad, Dataset,


Purdue Entomological Research Collection


Quentin J. Groom. 2020. Species interactions of species on the List of invasive alien species of Union concern


Redhead, J.W.; Coombes, C.F.; Dean, H.J.; Dyer, R.; Oliver, T.H.; Pocock, M.J.O.; Rorke, S.L.; Vanbergen, A.J.; Woodcock, B.A.; Pywell, R.F. (2018). Plant-pollinator interactions database for construction of potential networks. NERC Environmental Information Data Centre.


Robert L. Minckley San Bernardino Valley from the year 2000 to 2011.


San Diego Natural History Museum


Sarah E Miller. 06/10/2015. Species associations manually extracted from Chamberlin, W. J. The Buprestidae of North America, Exclusive of Mexico, a Catalogue including Synonomy, Bibliography, Distribution, Type Locality and Hosts of Each Species,. 1926.


Sarah E Miller. 12/13/2016. Species associations manually extracted from Onstad, D.W. EDWIP: Ecological Database of the World's Insect Pathogens. Champaign, Illinois: Illinois Natural History Survey, [23/11/2016].


Sarah E Miller. 4/18/2016. Species associations from Wardeh, M. et al. Database of host-pathogen and related species interactions, and their global distribution. Sci. Data 2:150049 doi: 10.1038/sdata.2015.49 (2015) 


Sarah E Miller. 4/20/2015. Species associations manually extracted from various papers and articles from site


Sarah E Miller. 5/28/2015. Arnaud, Paul Henri. A Host-parasite Catalog of North American Tachinidae (Diptera). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Science and Education Administration, 1978.


Sarah E Miller. 5/30/2016. Interations from various papers.


Sarah E Miller. 6/19/2015. Species associations manually extracted from datasets


Sarah E Miller. 6/22/2015. Species associations manually extracted from datasets


Sarah E Miller. 6/25/2015. Species associations manually extracted from Robertson, C. 1929. Flowers and insects: lists of visitors to four hundred and fifty-three flowers. Carlinville, IL, USA, C. Robertson.


Sarah E Miller. 7/6/2016. Arctos collection.


Sarah E Miller. 7/7/2016. Text gathered from Wirta, H.K., Vesterinen, E.J., Hambäck, P.A., Weingartner, E., Rasmussen, C., Reneerkens, J., Schmidt, N.M., Gilg, O. and Roslin, T., 2015. Exposing the structure of an Arctic food web. Ecology and evolution, 5(17), pp.3842-3856.


Sarah E Miller. 9/15/2016. Species associations extracted from


Sarah E Miller. 9/19/2016. Species associations extracted from Graystock, P., Blane, E.J., McFrederick, Q.S., Goulson, D. and Hughes, W.O., 2016. Do managed bees drive parasite spread and emergence in wild bees?. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife, 5(1), pp.64-75.


Sarah E. Miller. 07/06/2017. Information extracted from dataset


Scott L. Gardner and Gabor R. Racz (2021). University of Nebraska State Museum - Parasitology. Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology. University of Nebraska State Museum.


Seltmann, K., Van Wagner, J., Behm, R., Brown, Z., Tan, E., & Liu, K. (2020). BID: A project to share biotic interaction and ecological trait data about bees (Hymenoptera: Anthophila). UC Santa Barbara: Cheadle Center for Biodiversity and Ecological Restoration. Retrieved from


Species Connect.


Species Interactions of Australia Database (SIAD): Helping us to understand species interactions in Australia and beyond. .


Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network (SCAN)


Texas A&M University Insect Collection


The Albert J. Cook Arthropod Research Collection


The International Barcode of Life Consortium (2016). International Barcode of Life project (iBOL). Occurrence dataset


USGS Biodiversity Information Serving Our Nation (BISON) IPT


Udy, Kristy; Reininghaus, Hannah; Scherber, Christoph; Tscharntke, Teja (2020), Data from: Plant-pollinator interactions along an urbanization gradient from cities and villages to farmland landscapes, Dryad, Dataset,


United States Geological Survey (USGS) Pollinator Library.


University of Colorado Museum of Natural History Entomology Collection


University of Hawaii Insect Museum


University of Michigan Museum of Zoology Insect Division. Full Database Export 2020-11-20 provided by Erika Tucker and Barry Oconner.


University of New Hampshire Collection of Insects and other Arthropods UNHC-UNHC


University of New Hampshire Donald S. Chandler Entomological Collection


Urban M, Cuzick A, Rutherford K, Irvine A, Pedro H, Pant R, Sadanadan V, Khamari L, Billal S, Mohanty S, Hammond-Kosack KE. PHI-base: a new interface and further additions for the multi-species pathogen-host interactions database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017 Jan 4;45(D1):D604-D610. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkw1089. Epub 2016 Dec 3. PMID:27915230


WIRC / University of Wisconsin Madison WIS-IH / Wisconsin Insect Research Collection


Web of Life. .


Yale University Peabody Museum Collections Data Portal

69460 is a place where you can record what you see in nature, meet other nature lovers, and learn about the natural world.


3361 - the ecological interaction database.


Included files

- 1-GBID-statistics.csv - number of interaction records by date per family
- - script for separating bee records from the GloBI database interactions.tsv file
- interactions.tsv.gz - snapshot of the GloBI database from November 7, 2022
- - bee records from the GloBI database on November 7, 2022
- uniq_citations.tsv - list of unique citations indicating bee interactions
- Andrenidae_data_unique.tsv - Andrenidae records    
- Apidae_data_unique.tsv - Apidae records        
- Colletidae_data_unique.tsv - Colletidae records
- Halictidae_data_unique.tsv - Halictidae records    
- Megachilidae_data_unique.tsv - Megachilidae records    
- Melittidae_data_unique.tsv - Melittidae records
- Stenotritidae_data_unique.tsv - Stenotritidae records
- - this file

GloBI Community. (2022). Global Biotic Interactions: Interpreted Data Products (0.4) [Data set]. Zenodo.

Poelen JH, Simons JD, Mungall CJ (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.

Seltmann KC, Allen J, Brown BV, Carper A, Engel MS, Franz N, Gilbert E, Grinter C, Gonzalez VH, Horsley P, Lee S, Maier C, Miko I, Morris P, Oboyski P, Pierce NE, Poelen J, Scott VL, Smith M, Talamas EJ, Tsutsui ND, Tucker E (2021) Announcing Big-Bee: An initiative to promote understanding of bees through image and trait digitization. Biodiversity Information Science and Standards 5: e74037.


This project is supported by the National Science Foundation. Award numbers: DBI:2102006DBI:2101929DBI:2101908DBI:2101876DBI:2101875DBI:2101851DBI:2101345, DBI:2101913DBI:2101891 and DBI:2101850 



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Additional details


  • Poelen JH, Simons JD, Mungall CJ (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
  • Seltmann KC, Allen J, Brown BV, Carper A, Engel MS, Franz N, Gilbert E, Grinter C, Gonzalez VH, Horsley P, Lee S, Maier C, Miko I, Morris P, Oboyski P, Pierce NE, Poelen J, Scott VL, Smith M, Talamas EJ, Tsutsui ND, Tucker E (2021) Announcing Big-Bee: An initiative to promote understanding of bees through image and trait digitization. Biodiversity Information Science and Standards 5: e74037.