Published August 8, 2022 | Version v1
Dataset Open

An enhanced integrated water vapour dataset from more than 10,000 global ground-based GPS stations in 2020

  • 1. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Geodetic Institute, Karlsruhe, BW, Germany
  • 2. Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, University of Nevada, Reno, NV, USA
  • 3. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA
  • 4. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, Asheville, NC, USA
  • 5. Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium, Brussels, Belgium
  • 6. Wuhan University, GNSS Research Center, Wuhan, China
  • 7. Curtin University, School of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Perth, Australia


This is a 5-min Integrated Water Vapor (IWV) product from 12,552 ground-based GPS stations worldwide in 2020. It contains 1,093,591,492 IWV estimates in total. The dataset is an enhanced version of the existing operational GPS IWV dataset from Nevada Geodetic Laboratory. The enhancement is reached by using accurate meteorological information from ERA5 for the GPS IWV retrieval with a significantly higher spatiotemporal resolution. The dataset is recommended for high-accuracy applications.

 DESCRIPTION  Geodetic Institute, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany
 OUTPUT       5-min enhanced GPS Integrated Water Vapour product
 CONTACT      Peng Yuan,; Geoffrey Blewitt, 
 INPUT        NGL: GPS ZTD; ERA5 pressure level product: pressure and Tm

 NGL: Nevada Geodetic Laboratory, University of Nevada,
 ERA5: the fifth generation ECMWF reanalysis,
 Authors:     Peng Yuan, Geoffrey Blewitt, Corné Kreemer, William C. Hammond, 
              Donald Argus, Xungang Yin, Roeland Van Malderen, Michael Mayer,
              Weiping Jiang, Joseph Awange, Hansjoerg Kutterer

Detailed descriptions and quality evaluations of the dataset have been published in Earth System Science Data (see below).

If you would like to use the dataset, please cite the dataset and the associated paper as follows:

[1] Yuan, P., Blewitt, G., Kreemer, C., Hammond, W. C., Argus, D., Yin, X., Van Malderen, R., Mayer, M., Jiang, W., Awange, J., and Kutterer, H.: An enhanced integrated water vapour dataset from more than 10 000 global ground-based GPS stations in 2020, Earth System Science Data, 15, 723–743,, 2023.

[2] Yuan, Peng, Blewitt, Geoffrey, Kreemer, Corné, Hammond, William C., Argus, Donald, Yin, Xungang, Van Malderen, Roeland, Mayer, Michael, Jiang, Weiping, Awange, Joseph, & Kutterer, Hansjörg. (2022). An enhanced integrated water vapour dataset from more than 10,000 global ground-based GPS stations in 2020 [Data set]. Zenodo.

File: NGL2020_12552_blgph.txt
Description: coordinates of the 12552 GPS stations worldwide
  column #1: Site name
  column #2: Latitude (degree)
  column #3: Longitude (degree)
  column #4: Geopotential altitude (geopotential meter)

ZIP files: data saved according to the first letter of the station names
Description: enhanced GPS IWV data product at 12552 stations worldwide
Structure:   saved as each day for each station, and then all the daily
             files of each station were saved as respective ZIP file
             which named as "site"
Format: IGS TROP format


We are grateful to NGL for providing the GPS ZTD products and many institutions for sharing the continuous GPS observations. We also thank ECMWF, TUW, and NCEI for providing the ERA5, TUW, IGRA radiosonde, and ISD synoptic data. This work was funded at KIT with the German Research Foundation (DFG, project number: 321886779). This work was funded at NGL with NASA grants 80NSSC19K1044 and 80NSSC22K0463. If you would like to use the dataset, please cite the dataset and the associated paper with the information provided in the dataset description.


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