Published May 4, 2022 | Version v1
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Policy Brief: Key findings and recommendations from three H2020 Projects on Tipping Points: TiPES, COMFORT, and TiPACCs

  • 1. University of Bergen, Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen, Norway
  • 2. Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 3. Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany
  • 4. Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
  • 5. Norce Norwegian Research Centre AS, Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen, Norway
  • 6. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden


There is a threat of imminent abrupt and irreversible transitions in the Earth system, both on land and in the ocean. A reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and in land-use change must be implemented urgently to mitigate these changes through political, economic, and societal measures. Yet, considerable knowledge gaps remain concerning the processes underlying the dynamics of tipping elements,

Three EU funded Horizon2020 projects have been investigating tipping behaviour in the Earth system: Tipping Points in the Earth System (TiPES), Our Common Future Ocean in the Earth System (COMFORT), and Tipping Points in Antarctic Climate Components (TiPACCs). In the joint policy brief, you can find key findings of the three projects, persisting knowledge gaps as well as policy recommendations.


Policy brief_COMFORT, TiPES, TiPACCs.pdf

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COMFORT – Our common future ocean in the Earth system – quantifying coupled cycles of carbon, oxygen, and nutrients for determining and achieving safe operating spaces with respect to tipping points 820989
European Commission
TiPACCs – Tipping Points in Antarctic Climate Components 820575
European Commission
TiPES – Tipping Points in the Earth System 820970
European Commission