Published February 24, 2022 | Version v2_0
Dataset Open

AIT Log Data Set V2.0

  • 1. AIT Austrian Institute of Technology
  • 2. Vienna University of Technology


AIT Log Data Sets

This repository contains synthetic log data suitable for evaluation of intrusion detection systems, federated learning, and alert aggregation. A detailed description of the dataset is available in [1]. The logs were collected from eight testbeds that were built at the Austrian Institute of Technology (AIT) following the approach by [2]. Please cite these papers if the data is used for academic publications.

In brief, each of the datasets corresponds to a testbed representing a small enterprise network including mail server, file share, WordPress server, VPN, firewall, etc. Normal user behavior is simulated to generate background noise over a time span of 4-6 days. At some point, a sequence of attack steps is launched against the network. Log data is collected from all hosts and includes Apache access and error logs, authentication logs, DNS logs, VPN logs, audit logs, Suricata logs, network traffic packet captures, horde logs, exim logs, syslog, and system monitoring logs. Separate ground truth files are used to label events that are related to the attacks. Compared to the AIT-LDSv1.1, a more complex network and diverse user behavior is simulated, and logs are collected from all hosts in the network. If you are only interested in network traffic analysis, we also provide the AIT-NDS containing the labeled netflows of the testbed networks.

The datasets in this repository have the following structure:

  • The gather directory contains all logs collected from the testbed. Logs collected from each host are located in gather/<host_name>/logs/.
  • The labels directory contains the ground truth of the dataset that indicates which events are related to attacks. The directory mirrors the structure of the gather directory so that each label files is located at the same path and has the same name as the corresponding log file. Each line in the label files references the log event corresponding to an attack by the line number counted from the beginning of the file ("line"), the labels assigned to the line that state the respective attack step ("labels"), and the labeling rules that assigned the labels ("rules"). An example is provided below.
  • The processing directory contains the source code that was used to generate the labels.
  • The rules directory contains the labeling rules.
  • The environment directory contains the source code that was used to deploy the testbed and run the simulation using the Kyoushi Testbed Environment.
  • The dataset.yml file specifies the start and end time of the simulation.

The following table summarizes relevant properties of the datasets:

  • fox
    • Simulation time: 2022-01-15 00:00 - 2022-01-20 00:00
    • Attack time: 2022-01-18 11:59 - 2022-01-18 13:15
    • Scan volume: High
    • Unpacked size: 26 GB
  • harrison
    • Simulation time: 2022-02-04 00:00 - 2022-02-09 00:00
    • Attack time: 2022-02-08 07:07 - 2022-02-08 08:38
    • Scan volume: High
    • Unpacked size: 27 GB
  • russellmitchell
    • Simulation time: 2022-01-21 00:00 - 2022-01-25 00:00
    • Attack time: 2022-01-24 03:01 - 2022-01-24 04:39
    • Scan volume: Low
    • Unpacked size: 14 GB
  • santos
    • Simulation time: 2022-01-14 00:00 - 2022-01-18 00:00
    • Attack time: 2022-01-17 11:15 - 2022-01-17 11:59
    • Scan volume: Low
    • Unpacked size: 17 GB
  • shaw
    • Simulation time: 2022-01-25 00:00 - 2022-01-31 00:00
    • Attack time: 2022-01-29 14:37 - 2022-01-29 15:21
    • Scan volume: Low
    • Data exfiltration is not visible in DNS logs
    • Unpacked size: 27 GB
  • wardbeck
    • Simulation time: 2022-01-19 00:00 - 2022-01-24 00:00
    • Attack time: 2022-01-23 12:10 - 2022-01-23 12:56
    • Scan volume: Low
    • Unpacked size: 26 GB
  • wheeler
    • Simulation time: 2022-01-26 00:00 - 2022-01-31 00:00
    • Attack time: 2022-01-30 07:35 - 2022-01-30 17:53
    • Scan volume: High
    • No password cracking in attack chain
    • Unpacked size: 30 GB
  • wilson
    • Simulation time: 2022-02-03 00:00 - 2022-02-09 00:00
    • Attack time: 2022-02-07 10:57 - 2022-02-07 11:49
    • Scan volume: High
    • Unpacked size: 39 GB

The following attacks are launched in the network:

  • Scans (nmap, WPScan, dirb)
  • Webshell upload (CVE-2020-24186)
  • Password cracking (John the Ripper)
  • Privilege escalation
  • Remote command execution
  • Data exfiltration (DNSteal)

Note that attack parameters and their execution orders vary in each dataset. Labeled log files are trimmed to the simulation time to ensure that their labels (which reference the related event by the line number in the file) are not misleading. Other log files, however, also contain log events generated before or after the simulation time and may therefore be affected by testbed setup or data collection. It is therefore recommended to only consider logs with timestamps within the simulation time for analysis.

The structure of labels is explained using the audit logs from the intranet server in the russellmitchell data set as an example in the following. The first four labels in the labels/intranet_server/logs/audit/audit.log file are as follows:

{"line": 1860, "labels": ["attacker_change_user", "escalate"], "rules": {"attacker_change_user": [""], "escalate": [""]}} {"line": 1861, "labels": ["attacker_change_user", "escalate"], "rules": {"attacker_change_user": [""], "escalate": [""]}} {"line": 1862, "labels": ["attacker_change_user", "escalate"], "rules": {"attacker_change_user": [""], "escalate": [""]}} {"line": 1863, "labels": ["attacker_change_user", "escalate"], "rules": {"attacker_change_user": [""], "escalate": [""]}}

Each JSON object in this file assigns a label to one specific log line in the corresponding log file located at gather/intranet_server/logs/audit/audit.log. The field "line" in the JSON objects specify the line number of the respective event in the original log file, while the field "labels" comprise the corresponding labels. For example, the lines in the sample above provide the information that lines 1860-1863 in the gather/intranet_server/logs/audit/audit.log file are labeled with "attacker_change_user" and "escalate" corresponding to the attack step where the attacker receives escalated privileges. Inspecting these lines shows that they indeed correspond to the user authenticating as root:

type=USER_AUTH msg=audit(1642999060.603:2226): pid=27950 uid=33 auid=4294967295 ses=4294967295 msg='op=PAM:authentication acct="jhall" exe="/bin/su" hostname=? addr=? terminal=/dev/pts/1 res=success' type=USER_ACCT msg=audit(1642999060.603:2227): pid=27950 uid=33 auid=4294967295 ses=4294967295 msg='op=PAM:accounting acct="jhall" exe="/bin/su" hostname=? addr=? terminal=/dev/pts/1 res=success' type=CRED_ACQ msg=audit(1642999060.615:2228): pid=27950 uid=33 auid=4294967295 ses=4294967295 msg='op=PAM:setcred acct="jhall" exe="/bin/su" hostname=? addr=? terminal=/dev/pts/1 res=success' type=USER_START msg=audit(1642999060.627:2229): pid=27950 uid=33 auid=4294967295 ses=4294967295 msg='op=PAM:session_open acct="jhall" exe="/bin/su" hostname=? addr=? terminal=/dev/pts/1 res=success'

The same applies to all other labels for this log file and all other log files. There are no labels for logs generated by "normal" (i.e., non-attack) behavior; instead, all log events that have no corresponding JSON object in one of the files from the labels directory, such as the lines 1-1859 in the example above, can be considered to be labeled as "normal". This means that in order to figure out the labels for the log data it is necessary to store the line numbers when processing the original logs from the gather directory and see if these line numbers also appear in the corresponding file in the labels directory.

Beside the attack labels, a general overview of the exact times when specific attack steps are launched are available in gather/attacker_0/logs/attacks.log. An enumeration of all hosts and their IP addresses is stated in processing/config/servers.yml. Moreover, configurations of each host are provided in gather/<host_name>/configs/ and gather/<host_name>/facts.json.

Version history:

  • AIT-LDS-v1.x: Four datasets, logs from single host, fine-granular audit logs, mail/CMS.
  • AIT-LDS-v2.0: Eight datasets, logs from all hosts, system logs and network traffic, mail/CMS/cloud/web.

Acknowledgements: Partially funded by the FFG projects INDICAETING (868306) and DECEPT (873980), and the EU projects GUARD (833456) and PANDORA (SI2.835928).

If you use the dataset, please cite the following publications:

[1] M. Landauer, F. Skopik, M. Frank, W. Hotwagner, M. Wurzenberger, and A. Rauber. "Maintainable Log Datasets for Evaluation of Intrusion Detection Systems". IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 3466-3482, doi: 10.1109/TDSC.2022.3201582. [PDF]

[2] M. Landauer, F. Skopik, M. Wurzenberger, W. Hotwagner and A. Rauber, "Have it Your Way: Generating Customized Log Datasets With a Model-Driven Simulation Testbed," in IEEE Transactions on Reliability, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 402-415, March 2021, doi: 10.1109/TR.2020.3031317. [PDF]


M. Landauer, F. Skopik, M. Frank, W. Hotwagner, M. Wurzenberger, and A. Rauber. "Maintainable Log Datasets for Evaluation of Intrusion Detection Systems". IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 3466-3482, doi: 10.1109/TDSC.2022.3201582.


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GUARD – A cybersecurity framework to GUArantee Reliability and trust for Digital service chains 833456
European Commission