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Published July 7, 2021 | Version 2021.04.03
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SeaFlux: harmonised sea-air CO2 fluxes from surface pCO2 data products using a standardised approach

  • 1. Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zurich, Zürich, Switzerland
  • 2. Columbia University and Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades NY, USA
  • 1. Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 20146 Hamburg, Germany
  • 2. Columbia University and Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades NY, USA
  • 3. Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zurich, Zürich, Switzerland
  • 4. Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Gif‐Sur‐Yvette, France
  • 5. Atmosphere and Ocean Department, Japan Meteorological Agency, 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-Ku, Tokyo 100-8122, Japan
  • 6. Dept. - Geoscience, Environment & Society (DGES), Université Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles, CP16002, Belgium
  • 7. Biogeochemical Signals, Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, P.O. Box 600164, Hans-Knöll-Str. 10, 07745 Jena, Germany
  • 8. National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8506, Japan


Fluxes calculated using the standardized approach:

 \(F\text{CO}_2=K_0 \cdot K_w \cdot (p\text{CO}_2^\text{sea} - p\text{CO}_2^\text{atm})\ \cdot (1 - [ice])\).

We provide each of the components to this equation to reduce the potential for errors in fluxes due to methodological differences.

The netCDF files contain the following data: 

  • fgco2_all_winds_products: the sea-air CO2 flux for all spCO2 products (6) and kw from all wind products (5). 
  • fgco2_global: the globally integrated sea-air CO2 fluxes for all spCO2 products (6) and kw from all wind products (6)
  • solWeis74:  \(K_0\)  is calculated using the Weiss (1974) parameterization with EN4 salinity and OISST temperatures 
  • kw_quadratic_scaled: \(k_w\)  is calculated for winds with each being scaled independently to a 14-C bomb flux estimate of 16.5 cm/hr using the quadratic formulation by Wanninkhof (1992).
    • CCMPv2
    • ERA5
    • JRA55
    • NCEP1
    • NCEP2
  • spco2_SOCOM_unfilled\(p\text{CO}_2^\text{sea}\) downloaded from various sources contains the following products:
    • CSIR_ML6
    • JENA_MLS
    • JMA_MLR
    • NIES_FNN
  • spco2_fillerscaled version of the Landschützer et al. (2020) climatology used to fill missing regions of spco2_SOCOM_unfilled
  • pco2atm: \(p\text{CO}_2^\text{atm}\) is calculated from NOAA's marine boundary layer product with ERA5 mean sea level pressure corrected for pH2O
  • ice: \([ice]\)  is the ice fraction from the OISST product
  • area_ocean: the surface area of the ocean including the fractional area of the coastal regions

Units are listed in the metadata of each of the netCDF variables. 


version 2021.04.03: includes globally integrated fluxes including all wind and pco2 products. version 2021.04.02: removed some files that remained from v2021.02 that I didn't delete in v2021.04 version 2021.04 now extends the variables to calculate fluxes from 1982-2020. The comparison period for fluxes is now limited to 1990-2019 (30 years). The area contains coastal fraction coverage. A missing strip along the longitude 179.5°E is filled in. Negative values of pCO2 are limited to 50 µatm (primarily affects JENA in Hudson Bay). version 2021.02 calibrates kw with 14-C bomb estimated global average kw (16.5 ± 3.2 cm/hr) where the average is calculated without ice weighting (v2021.01 included ice weighting). Further, the date range of the data has been increased from 1982 to 2020 where possible (not possible for the scaling factor and pCO2 product).


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Related works

Is cited by
Journal article: 10.5194/essd-2021-16 (DOI)


COMFORT – Our common future ocean in the Earth system – quantifying coupled cycles of carbon, oxygen, and nutrients for determining and achieving safe operating spaces with respect to tipping points 820989
European Commission