Published March 15, 2021 | Version v1.0
Software Open


  • 1. Kiel University


This conglomerate of scripts (R and Python) together performs “EstimatingLandLabourLimitations”, an assessment of the limitations of available land and labour of given heuristic scenarios of landscape and population size, as well as diet composition and labour investment specifications. The analyses were performed for the Mirco-Region of Pergamon (Turkey) during 2nd century CE but can be fitted to any other region at any scale.

Please execute the scripts in the supposed order. Note that no basic geodata (e.g. DEM) is included in “EstimatingLandLabourLimitations”.

For land use area estimations and the fuzzyfication of the landscape the R packages LandUseQuantifieR ( respectively FuzzyLandscapes ( should be installed.


References for the empirical data

Halstead, P. Two Oxen Ahead. Pre-Mechanized Farming in the Mediterranean; John Wiley & Sons, Inc: Chichester, 2014.

Sherwood, A.N.; Nikolic, M.; Humphrey, J.W.; Oleson, J.P. Greek and Roman Technology. A Sourcebook of Translated Greek and Roman Texts; Routledge: Oxon, 2020.

Sommerey, K.M. Die Chora von Pergamon: Studien zu Grenzen, Siedlungsstruktur und Wirtschaft. Istanbuler Mitteilungen 2008, 58, 135–170.


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