Software Open Access


Knitter, Daniel; Hamer, Wolfgang; Günther, Gerrit; Vorspel-Rüter, Camille

This package is an (adapted) R implementation of the land use quantification approach from Hughes et al. 2018; The package calculates the required area of land for a given number of people, mainly based on their diet. Further information how to use the packge are found in the vignettes. Various nutritional information are collected as data objects within the package (see additional notes).


New in version 1.1: added protein requirments.



Hughes RE, Weiberg E, Bonnier A, Finné M and Kaplan JO (2018) Quantifying Land Use in Past Societies from Cultural Practice and Archaeological Data. Land 7(1): 9: doi:10.3390/land7010009.


Empirical Data used in the package

The package builds upon empirical data on caloric density as well as plant productivity. Below is the list of references for these data (the list of full references is also supplied in the references.txt and references.bib respectively, that is shipped with the package)

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Aggelopoulou KD, Wulfsohn D, Fountas S, Gemtos TA, Nanos GD and Blackmore S (2009) Spatial variation in yield and quality in a small apple orchard. Precision Agriculture 11(5): 538–556.
AIM Statistics Report 2016 ( (n.d.)). .

Arnon I (1972) Crop production in dry regions. Volume 2. Systematic treatment of the principal crops. Crop production in dry regions. Systematic treatment of the principal crops 2. Available at:

Barker G and Barker DP of A and D of the MI for ARG (1985) Prehistoric Farming in Europe. New Yok: CUP Archive.

Barzegar AR, Asoodar MA, Khadish A, Hashemi AM and Herbert SJ (2003) Soil physical characteristics and chickpea yield responses to tillage treatments. Soil and Tillage Research 71(1): 49–57: doi:10.1016/S0167-1987(03)00019-9.

Battisti A, Benvegnù I, Colombari F and Haack RA (2014) Invasion by the chestnut gall wasp in Italy causes significant yield loss in Castanea sativa nut production. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 16(1): 75–79: doi:10.1111/afe.12036.

Böhm E (1997) Jagdpraxis im Schwarzwaldrevier: Vom Abfährten bis zum Zerwirken. Graz: Stocker, L.

Buchner RP (2012) Prune Production Manual. Oakland: University of California: UCANR Publications.

Cohen DM, Inada T, Iwamoto T and Scialabba N (1990) FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.

Dahl G and Hjort A (1976) Having herds: pastoral herd growth and household economy. Stockholm: Dept. of Social Anthropology, University of Stockholm.

Datenbank BiolFlor - Helmholtz-Zentrum für Umweltforschung UFZ ( (n.d.)). . Available at:

Ferguson L, Polito V and Kallsen C (2005) The pistachio tree; botany and physiology and factors that affect yield. Pistachio Production Manual, 10.

Foxhall L (2007) Olive Cultivation in Ancient Greece: Seeking the Ancient Economy. Oxford.

Freyhof J and Kottelat M (2007) Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Berlin: Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof. Available at:

Ganopoulos I, Merkouropoulos G, Pantazis S, Tsipouridis C and Tsaftaris A (2011) Assessing molecular and morpho-agronomical diversity and identification of ISSR markers associated with fruit traits in quince (Cydonia oblonga). Genetics and Molecular Research 10(4): 2729–2746: doi:10.4238/2011.November.4.7.

Garnsey P (1992) Yield of the Land. Agriculture in Ancient Greece: Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium at the Swedish Institute at Athens 42.

Glutz von Blotzheim UN (1966) Handbuch der Vögel Mitteleuropas. Wiesbaden: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft.

Halstead P (1996) Pastoralism or Household Herding? Problems of Scale and Specialization in Early Greek Animal Husbandry. World Archaeology 28(1): 20–42.

Hampson CR, Azarenko AN and Potter JR (1996) Photosynthetic Rate, Flowering, and Yield Component Alteration in Hazelnut in Response to Different Light Environments. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 121(6): 1103–1111.

Hughes RE, Weiberg E, Bonnier A, Finné M and Kaplan JO (2018) Quantifying Land Use in Past Societies from Cultural Practice and Archaeological Data. Land 7(1): 9: doi:10.3390/land7010009.

James P and Measham PF (2011) Australian Cherry Production Guide. Lenswood: Government of Southern Australia.

Klimenko S (2004) The Cornelian Cherry (Cornus mas L.): Collection, preservation, and utilization of genetic resources. Journal of Fruit and Ornamental Plant Research 12: 94–98.

Lüning J and Meurers-Balke J (1980) Experimenteller Getreideanbau im Hambacher Forst, Gemeinde Elsdorf, Kreis Bergheim, Rheinland. Bonner Jahrbücher 180: 305–344.

Miarnau X, Alegre S and Vargas F (2010) Productive potential of six almond cultivars under regulated deficit irrigation. XIV GREMPA Meeting on Pistachios and almonds. Options Méditerranéennes, Series A (94): 267–271.

Muus BJ and Dahlström P (1968) Süßwasserfische. München: BLV Verlagsgesellschaft.

Osten-Sacken E von der (2015) Untersuchungen zur Geflügelwirtschaft im Alten Orient. Fribourg: Academic Press Fribourg.

Otte MJ and Chilonda P (2002) Cattle and small ruminant production systems in sub-Saharan Africa : a systematic review. Rome.

Poli BM, Focardi S and Tinelli A (1996) Composition and metabolizable energy of feed used by fallow deer (Dama dama) in a coastal Mediterranean ecosystem. Small Ruminant Research 22(2): 103–109: doi:10.1016/S0921-4488(96)00885-1.

Pretzsch H (2013) Wood fuels handbook. Pristina: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Ramos DE (1998) Walnut Production Manual. Oakland: University of California: UCANR Publications.

Referenzwerte für die Nährstoffzufuhr (2017). Bonn: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährung, Österreichische Gesellschaft für Ernährung, Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Ernährung.

Revedin A, Aranguren B, Becattini R, Longo L, Marconi E, Lippi MM, et al. (2010) Thirty thousand-year-old evidence of plant food processing. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107(44): 18815–18819: doi:10.1073/pnas.1006993107.

Rinallo C and Modi G (1995) Fruit yield of field-grown pear Pyrus communis (L) exposed to different levels of rain acidity in tuscany. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 68(1): 43–50: doi:10.1002/jsfa.2740680108.

Robins CR, Ray GC, Douglass J, Freund R, Society NA and Federation NW (1986) A field guide to Atlantic Coast fishes of North America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Robinson J and Harding J (2015) The Oxford Companion to Wine. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Souci SW, Fachmann W and Kraut H (2016) Die Zusammensetzung der Lebensmittel, Nährwert-Tabellen. Stuttgart. Available at:

Starr CG (1977) The economic and social growth of early Greece, 800-500 b.c. New York: Oxford University Press.

Stubbe C (1979) Rehwild: Biologie - Ökologie - Bewirtschaftung. Stuttgart: Franckh Kosmos Verlag.

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USDA Food Composition Databases (2015). . Available at:

USDA Food Composition Databases (2018). . Available at:

Wildlebende Gänse und Schwäne in Sachsen (2008). Dresden. Available at:

Wolfe K, Audrey-Luke M, Daniels J, Kane S, Martino K, Heboyan V, et al. (2009) Pomegranate Feasibility Study. Atlanta: University of Georgia.

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