Published August 1, 2020 | Version Accepted pre-print
Journal article Open

Transfer of Manure as Fertilizer from Livestock Farms to Crop Fields: The Case of Catalonia

  • 1. Research Centre on Interactive Media, Smart Systems and Emerging Technologies (RISE), Nicosia, Cyprus and Department of Computer Science, University of Twente, The Netherlands
  • 2. Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa
  • 3. Department of Computer Science, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus
  • 4. Institute of Agriculture and Food Research and Technology (IRTA), Barcelona, Spain


Intensive livestock production might have a negative environmental impact, by producing large amounts of animal manure, which, if not properly managed, can contaminate nearby water bodies with nutrient excess. However, if animal manure is exported to nearby crop fields, to be used as organic fertilizer, pollution can be mitigated. It is a single-objective optimization problem, in regards to finding the best solution for the logistics process of satisfying nutrient needs of crops by means of livestock manure. This paper proposes three different approaches to solve the problem: a centralized optimal algorithm (COA), a decentralized nature-inspired cooperative technique, based on the foraging behaviour of ants (AIA), as well as a naive neighbour-based method (NBS), which constitutes the existing practice used today in an ad hoc, uncoordinated manner in Catalonia. Results show that the COA approach is 8.5% more efficient than the AIA. However, the AIA approach is fairer to the farmers and more balanced in terms of average transportation distances that need to be covered by each livestock farmer, while it is 1.07 times more efficient than the NBS. Our work constitutes the first application of a decentralized AIA to this interesting real-world problem, in a domain where swarm intelligence methods are still under-exploited.


This work has been partly supported by the project that has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 739578 (RISE – Call: H2020-WIDESPREAD-01-2016-2017-TeamingPhase2) and the Government of the Republic of Cyprus through the Directorate General for European Programmes, Coordination and Development.



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RISE – Research Center on Interactive Media, Smart System and Emerging Technologies 739578
European Commission
P-SPHERE – Opening Sphere UAB-CEI to PostDoctoral Fellows 665919
European Commission