Published November 15, 2019 | Version v1
Dataset Open

Aalto-1/RADMON data set 2017/2018

  • 1. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, Finland
  • 2. Department of Future Technologies, University of Turku, Finland
  • 3. Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Finland
  • 4. School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University, Finland


General information:

  • For a description of the Aalto-1 mission, see Kestilä et al. (2013) and Praks et al. (2018)
  • For the RADMON instrument and its calibration, see Peltonen et al. (2014) and Oleynik et al. (2020)
  • For this dataset description, see Gieseler et al. (2020)
  • If you use this data set, please give a proper citation to Gieseler et al. (2020). e.g.:
    • Gieseler, J., Oleynik, P., Hietala, H., Vainio, R., Hedman, H.P., Peltonen, J., Punkkinen, A., Punkkinen, R., Säntti, T., Hæggström, E., Praks, J., Niemelä, P., Riwanto, B., Jovanovic, N., Mughal, M.R., 2020. Radiation Monitor RADMON aboard Aalto-1 CubeSat: First results. Advances in Space Research, 66 (1), 52–65, doi:10.1016/j.asr.2019.11.023arXiv:1911.07586
  • For omnidirectional averaged fluxes use combination of multiple measurements intervals (e.g., for the same coordinates) with total integration times of at least 30 minutes (for more details, see Gieseler et al., 2020)
  • Data gaps in the fluxes are indicated as empty entries, while zeros denote zero counts in the measurement interval
  • Empty entries in AACGM coordinates and L parameter indicate not-defined values


Data file columns description:

  • time: end time of measurement interval in YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS
  • e2 - e4: integral electron fluxes in (cm2 s sr)-1 (see below for energies)
  • i1 - i4: integral proton fluxes (cm2 s sr)-1 (see below for energies)
  • i5: differential proton flux (cm2 s sr MeV)-1 (see below for energies)
  • interval: integration time of measurement interval (usually 15s)
  • lat: geographic latitude of Aalto-1 
  • lon: geographic longitude of Aalto-1 
  • altitude: altitude above sea level (RE = 6371.0 km) of Aalto-1 (in m)
  • mag_lat: geomagnetic latitude of Aalto-1
  • mag_lon: geomagnetic longitude of Aalto-1
  • aacgmv2_lat: altitude-adjusted corrected geomagnetic latitude of Aalto-1
  • aacgmv2_lon: altitude-adjusted corrected geomagnetic longitude of Aalto-1
  • aacgmv2_mlt: magnetic local time based on the AACGM coordinates
  • L: McIlwain L parameter

See Gieseler et al. (2020) for descriptions of the different variables and its derivations.


Channel details:


  • e2
    cutoff energy: 1.51 ± 0.1 MeV
    geometric factor: 0.0108 ± 0.0005 cm2 s sr
  • e3
    cutoff energy: 3.1 ± 0.2 MeV
    geometric factor: 0.0160 ± 0.0005 cm2 s sr
  • e4
    cutoff energy: 6.0 ± 0.7 MeV
    geometric factor: 0.0119 ± 0.0008 cm2 s sr


  • i1
    cutoff energy: 10.4 ± 0.3 MeV
    geometric factor: 0.0228 ± 0.0004 cm2 s sr
  • i2
    cutoff energy: 18.5 ± 0.7 MeV
    geometric factor: 0.0256 ± 0.0009 cm2 s sr
  • i3
    cutoff energy: 23.7 ± 1.8 MeV
    geometric factor: 0.0219 ± 0.0011 cm2 s sr
  • i4
    cutoff energy: 29 ± 4 MeV
    geometric factor: 0.0187 ± 0.0014 cm2 s sr
  • i5
    effective energy: 42 ± 5 MeV
    differential geometric factor: 0.783 ± 0.09 cm² cm2 s sr MeV

Note: The channel i5 is the only one yielding differential flux (instead of integral flux), with an energy range of 40-80 MeV, and an effective energy of 42 MeV. Its differential geometric factor is given in units of (cm2 sr MeV)-1.


  • See OIeynik et al. (2020) for more details, e.g., on the derivation of bowtie cutoff energies and possible proton contamination in electron channels
  • Energies are bowtie cutoff energies for integral channels except for proton channel i5 for which the effective energy is given
  • Uncertainties for energies and geometric factors are 95% (two sigmas)
  • All channels yield integral fluxes in units of (cm2 s sr)-1 except for proton channel i5 which gives differential flux in (cm2 s sr MeV)-1


This work was performed in the framework of the Finnish Centre of Excellence in Research of Sustainable Space (FORESAIL) funded by the Academy of Finland (grants 312357 and 312358). We gratefully acknowledge the efforts of dozens of students in Aalto University, University of Turku and University of Helsinki for their work in the Aalto-1 satellite and RADMON projects. Aalto University MIDE is thanked for financial support for building Aalto-1. Aalto University, University of Turku, RUAG, Space Systems Finland, and Nokia sponsored the launch of the satellite.



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Additional details


  • Gieseler, J., Oleynik, P., Hietala, H., Vainio, R., Hedman, H.P., Peltonen, J., Punkkinen, A., Punkkinen, R., Säntti, T., Hæggström, E., Praks, J., Niemelä, P., Riwanto, B., Jovanovic, N., Mughal, M.R., 2019. Radiation Monitor RADMON aboard Aalto-1 CubeSat: First results. Advances in Space Research, doi:10.1016/j.asr.2019.11.023, arXiv:1911.07586
  • Kestilä, A., Tikka, T., Peitso, P., Rantanen, J., Näsilä, A., Nordling, K., Saari, H., Vainio, R., Janhunen, P., Praks, J., Hallikainen, M., 2013. Aalto-1 nanosatellite - technical description and mission objectives. Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems 2, 121–130. doi:10.5194/gi-2-121-2013
  • Oleynik, P., Vainio, R., Punkkinen, A., Dudnik, O., Gieseler, J., Hedman, H., Hietala, H., Hæggström, E., Niemelä, P., Peltonen, J., Praks, J., Punkkinen, R., Säntti, T., Valtonen, E., 2019. Calibration of RADMON Radiation Monitor Onboard Aalto-1 CubeSat. Advances in Space Research (accepted). arXiv:1911.07550
  • Peltonen, J., Hedman, H.P., Ilmanen, A., Lindroos, M., Maattanen, M., Pesonen, J., Punkkinen, R., Punkkinen, A., Vainio, R., Valtonen, E., Santti, T., Pentikäinen, J., Haeggstrom, E., 2014. Electronics for the RADMON instrument on the Aalto-1 student satellite, in: 10th Eur. Work. Microelectron. Educ. EWME 2014, pp. 161–166. doi:10.1109/EWME.2014.6877418
  • Praks, J., Niemelä, P., Näsilä, A., Kestilä, A., Jovanovic, N., Riwanto, B., Tikka, T., Leppinen, H., Vainio, R., Janhunen, P., 2018. Miniature spectral imager in-orbit demonstration results from aalto-1 nanosatellite mission, in: Proceedings of 2018 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, pp. 1986–1989. doi:10.1109/IGARSS.2018.8517658