THE PATH TO DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRATED TOOL FOR DISTRICT COOLING SYSTEMS MODELLING, SIMULATION,AND CONTROL
The reviewed literature reveals that cooling demand is increasing in Europe. District Cooling Systems (DCS) are provided to fulfil this demand. However, DCS has challenges including the low temperature difference between the supply and return water. Thus, the specific challenges inherent to DCS require specific modelling, simulation, and control methods for efficient and green operation of DCS. In this paper, we study the modelling, simulation, and control of DCS. The DCS is composed of the generation, distribution, and consumption sites; while each of these sites are partly responsible for DCS energy consumption and CO2 emissions. Our purpose is to critically review the current practice in DCS to distinguish the gaps in the energy-efficient operation of DCS. We then review the control methods applied in DCS, particularly the control of consumption and generation sites, to identify the technique that best applies to a whole implementation of modelling and predictive control in real-life applications of DCS. Modelling and control of DCS are proved to be satisfied through tools and methods like Modelica and predictive controllers. The gaps identified in this paper are the path towards the development of an integrated tool for efficient and green operation of DCS.