Published September 6, 2018 | Version v1
Journal article Open

Association between Breakfast Intake and Short-Term Memory, Performance and Mood among Saudi Female Adolescents


BACKGROUND: Breakfast consumption is labelled as the most important meal of the day. It might be of significant importance for adolescent students as it might influence their short-term memory, performance, and mood. However, the prevalence of skipping breakfast, among adolescents, in Saudi Arabia is high. AIMS: To investigate the association between breakfast intake and short-term memory, performance, and mood, among Saudi female adolescents. METHODS and MATERIAL: A Cross-sectional study was conducted in a secondary female School (Riyadh) involving 170 students (15-19 years). Structured questionnaires on breakfast eating habits, student performance at school, a standardized questionnaire mood and feeling, and a standardized short-term memory test were used for data collection. Statistical analysis used Chi2 test and ANOVA test to assess the association between breakfast intake and the studied parameters. RESULTS: Only 39% of participants keep their daily breakfast. Frequency of breakfast intake was strongly and positively associated with improved performance (R2=0.87, p<0.001), and to short-term memory score (R2=0.5, p<0.05).  However, no correlation between daily breakfast intake and mood was obtained. CONSLUSIONS: This study confirmed the high rate of skipping breakfast among Saudi female adolescents, and provides further evidence on the beneficial effect of breakfast intake on student’s short-term memory as well as the school performance. Nutrition education program targeting this population should be implemented to enhance its awareness on the importance of breakfast intake.


Alrayes et al. Vol 02 Issue 04.pdf

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