Published October 13, 2016 | Version v1
Journal article Open

Dietary exposure to mycotoxins through the consumption of commercial bread loaf in Valencia, Spain

  • 1. a Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Av. Vicent Andrés Estellés s/n, 46100 Burjassot, Spain b School of Life Sciences, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, Rua Imaculada Conceição 1155, 80215-901, Curitiba, PR, Brazil


In this study, 80 commercial samples of bread loaves were purchased from different supermarkets located in Valencia (Spain). These samples were investigated for the presence of legislated and non-legislated mycotoxins. Results showed that samples were contaminated with Aflatoxins (AFs), Zearalenone (ZEA) and Enniatins (ENs) with a frequency of 20, 96, and 65% respectively. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), Aflatoxin B2 (AFB2) and Aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) were detected with concentrations ranged from 0.5 to 7.1 μg/kg. The samples contaminated with AFB1 showed values exceeding the maximum limit allowed in the EU. The sum of AFs also exceeded the maximum limit allowed in 6 samples. ENs contamination data ranged from 0.2 to 54 μg/kg and ENB was the most prevalent one. ZEA values ranged from 27 to 905 μg/kg and 30% of the contaminated samples were above the limits enforced by the EU. Finally, dietary exposure of the population living in Valencia to AFs, ENs and ZEA was estimated using the deterministic approach, through the evaluation of the consumption of commercial loaf bread and relating this data with the contamination of the loaf bread, for the calculation of the estimated daily intake (EDI) for each mycotoxin detected.


Files (138.4 kB)

Name Size Download all
138.4 kB Download

Additional details


MycoKey – Integrated and innovative key actions for mycotoxin management in the food and feed chain 678781
European Commission