Published May 20, 2024 | Version v1
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Reliability in deterministic networks: Comparison of FRER (TSN) and PREOF (DetNet)

  • 1. ROR icon Telefonica Research and Development
  • 2. ROR icon Telefónica (Spain)


6G systems will need to make faster and more reliable decisions at the network edge to surpass the specifications outlined for eXtreme URLLC (xURLLC) services. One fundamental requirement concerning connectivity is determinism. Currently, a solution for incorporating determinism in Layer 2 is enabled by TSN, while in Layer 3
it is targeted by DetNet. Moreover, one possible option for forwarding in the case of DetNet is precisely the utilization of TSN as a data plane. Hence, there could potentially exist a DetNet/TSN domain in real deployments. Both standards present techniques to enhance network reliability through packet replication and
elimination, as FRER in the case of TSN and PREOF in the case of DetNet. This paper provides a comparison of both techniques.



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Additional details


PREDICT-6G – PRogrammable AI-Enabled DeterminIstiC neTworking for 6G 101095890
European Commission


  • B. Varga, J. Farkas, A. G. Malis, and S. Bryant, 'Deterministic Networking (DetNet) Data Plane: IP over IEEE 802.1 Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN)', Internet Engineering Task Force, Request for Comments RFC 9023, Jun. 2021. doi: 10.17487/RFC9023.
  • 'P802.1CBdb – FRER Extended Stream Identification Functions |'. Accessed: Apr. 17, 2024. [Online]. Available:
  • N. Finn, P. Thubert, B. Varga, and J. Farkas, 'Deterministic Networking Architecture', Internet Engineering Task Force, Request for Comments RFC 8655, Oct. 2019. doi: 10.17487/RFC8655.
  • B. Varga, J. Farkas, S. Kehrer, and T. Heer, 'Deterministic Networking (DetNet): Packet Ordering Function', Internet Engineering Task Force, Request for Comments RFC 9550, Mar. 2024. doi: 10.17487/RFC9550.