Published February 28, 2024 | Version CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0
Journal article Open

A Low-Cost Patch-Antenna for Non-Invasive Brain Cell Detection

  • 1. School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Taif University, Al Hawiyah


Abstract: Cancer is one of the most and frequent causes of death around the world. Brain tumor is a critical and dangerous type and has a few difficulties of the techniques used for its detection; it is hard to determine its location when it is small at an early stage. The purpose of this work is to design a patch antenna sensor that is a low-cost microstrip which is suitable to detect a brain cancer tumor. The computer simulation technology CST Studio Suite 3D EM simulation and analysis was used to design a patch antenna with different frequencies of 2.8 GHz, 3.9 GHz, 5GHz and 5.6GHz to diagnose brain tumors. A comparison study between these resonance frequencies (lower-band (L-B) 2 GHz, middle-band (MB) 3.9-5 GHz and upper-band (U-B) > 5 GHz) has been performed with six layers of brain phantom of fat, dura, brain, skin, CSF (Cerebrospinal Fluid) and skull. The designed patch sensor was assessed on both scenarios without and with a tumor cell on a brain phantom. Three parameters have been observed, the frequency phase shift, the deep amount of reflection return loss and power absorption were used to indicate the presence of the tumor cell. This study concludes that the middle-band (M-B) results in good penetration and better return loss depth around - 20dB. Meanwhile, the higher band provides high resolution of 21 MHz phase-shift but with only depth value of difference return loss of -0.1dB. The proposed work could provide a pathway on the design of patch sensors for biomedical applications.



Files (851.6 kB)

Name Size Download all
851.6 kB Preview Download

Additional details



Manuscript received on 24 January 2024 | Revised Manuscript received on 30 January 2024 | Manuscript Accepted on 15 February 2024 | Manuscript published on 28 February 2024.


  • R. L. Siegel, K. D. Miller, and A. Jemal, "Cancer statistics, 2017," CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 7–30, 2017.
  • B. J. Mohammed, A. M. Abbosh, S. Mustafa, and D. Ireland, "Microwave system for head imaging," IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 117–123, 2014.
  • A. Hossain, M.T. Islam, M.E.H. Chowdhury, H. Rmili and M. A Samsuzzaman "Planar Ultrawideband Patch Antenna Array for Microwave Breast Tumor Detection". Materials 2020, 13, 4918. [PubMed].
  • M.A.Aldhaeebi, K. Alzoubi, T.S. Almoneef, S.M. Bamatraf, , H. Attia and O.M. Ramahi "Review of Microwaves Techniques for Breast Cancer Detection". Sensors 2020, 20, 2390.
  • M.Z. Mahmud, M.T Islam, N. Misran, S. Kibria, and M.Samsuzzaman, "Microwave Imaging for Breast Tumor Detection Using Uniplanar AMC Based CPW-Fed Microstrip Antenna". IEEE Access 2018, 6, 44763–44775.
  • M. Ostadrahimi, P. Mojabi, S. Noghanian, L. Shafai, S. Pistorius, and J. Lovetri, "A novel microwave tomography system based on the scattering probe technique," IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 379–390, 2012.
  • F. S. G. B. Barnes, Handbook of Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields, CRC/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, Fl, USA, 2007
  • N. K. Nikolova, "Microwave imaging for breast cancer," IEEE Microwave Magazine, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 78–94, 2011.
  • A. E. Souvorov, A. E. Bulyshev, S. Y. Semenov, R. H. Svenson, and G. P. Tatsis, "Two-dimensional computer analysis of a microwave fat antenna array for breast cancer tomography," IEEE Transactions on MicrowaveTeory and Techniques, vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 1413–1415, 2000.
  • M. Rokunuzzaman, M. Samsuzzaman, and M. T. Islam, "Unidirectional Wideband 3-D Antenna for Human Head-Imaging Application," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 16, pp. 169–172, 2017.
  • I. Singh and V. S. Tripathi, "Microstrip patch antenna and its applications: a survey," International Journal of Computer Applications in Technology, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 1595–1599, 2011.
  • R. Inum, Md. Masud Rana, K. N. Shushama, and Md. A. Quader, "EBG Based Microstrip Patch Antenna for Brain Tumor Detection via Scattering Parameters in Microwave Imaging System," International Journal of Biomedical Imaging, Volume 2018, Article ID 8241438, 12 pages.
  • M. Hussein, F. Awwad, D. Jithin, H. Hasasna, K. Athamneh and R. Iratni, "Breast cancer cells exhibits specific dielectric signature in vitro using the open-ended coaxial probe technique from 200 MHz to 13.6 GHz," Sci. Rep. 2019, 9, 4681. 019-41124-1
  • Balanis, Constantine A. Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design. 3rd ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley, 2005
  • Jogi, V. K., & Gupta, S. (2020). MEMS Based Diagnosis of Breast Cancer. In International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering (Vol. 9, Issue 4, pp. 2500–2503). 15.
  • Kaur, M., & Goyal, Dr. S. (2020). Microstrip Patch Antenna Design for Early Breast Cancer Detection. In International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering (IJRTE) (Vol. 8, Issue 6, pp. 2698–2705).
  • Dollera, Elmer B. (2019). Water Desalination System using Parabolic Trough with Varying Glass Thickness. In International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology (Vol. 9, Issue 1, pp. 6–11). 16
  • Sharma, S. (2023). Use of Vein Finder to Overcome Factor Affecting Peripheral Intravenous Cannulation, Venipuncture, IV Insertion, and Blood Draws. In Indian Journal of Design Engineering (Vol. 3, Issue 2, pp. 1–4). 17.
  • Paliwal, S., & Kalyan, B. S. (2022). Driver's Activity Detection System using Human antenna. In Indian Journal of Energy and Energy Resources (Vol. 1, Issue 3, pp. 4–6).