Published November 28, 2023 | Version v1
Publication Open

Strategies for improving farmer living conditions for sustainable cacao production in Côte d'Ivoire

  • 1. Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Müncheberg, Université Felix Houphouët-Boigny, Abidjan,
  • 2. Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Müncheberg,
  • 3. Université Felix Houphouët-Boigny, Abidjan,
  • 4. Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Müncheberg,
  • 5. Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Müncheberg,


Ivorian cocoa farming faces multiple economic, ecological and societal challenges, raising concerns about its sustainability and resilience to shocks and constraints. In 2010, the Ivorian government adopted policies to promote agroforestry, zero deforestation and crop diversification. Indeed, agricultural diversification is a strategy to add functional diversity to cropping systems, focusing on the production of range plants, animals and their products. The lack of data on diversification models on cocoa farms makes it difficult to assess ecological and economic effects. In the frame of our study, we focused on internal and external agricultural diversification, that is diversification from crop and non-crop diversification (livestock diversity, off-farm income). While the potential of crop diversification to contribute to the livelihoods of cocoa farmers is well recognized, insights on patterns of diversification on cocoa farms, their incomes, and the motivations for adopting one type of degree to another are still scarce. This information is crucial for choosing the best strategy for growing cocoa while preserving biodiversity and improving the income of farming households. Moreover, we quantified the yields of cocoa production and products from diversification crops, their contribution to the net income of producers, and the benefits of each type of diversification. Finally, we established a typology of the most profitable diversification model. Insights of this study are crucial to deepen public agricultural research in diversification models that suit regional differences, market and food security interests.

Keywords: Crop diversification, Cocoa, Household, Income, Côte d'Ivoire.


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