Published November 13, 2023 | Version v1
Conference paper Open

Effects of Convolutional Autoencoder Bottleneck Width on StarGAN-based Singing Technique Conversion


Singing technique conversion (STC) refers to the task of converting from one voice technique to another while leaving the original singer identity, melody, and linguistic components intact. Previous STC studies, as well as singing voice conversion research in general, have utilized convolutional autoencoders (CAEs) for conversion, but how the bottleneck width of the CAE affects the synthesis quality has not been thoroughly evaluated. To this end, we constructed a GAN-based multi-domain STC system which took advantage of the WORLD vocoder representation and the CAE architecture. We varied the bottleneck width of the CAE, and evaluated the conversion results subjectively. The model was trained on a Mandarin dataset which features four singers and four singing techniques: the chest voice, the falsetto, the raspy voice, and the whistle voice. The results show that a wider bottleneck corresponds to better articulation clarity but does not necessarily lead to higher likeness to the target technique. Among the four techniques, we also found that the whistle voice is the easiest target for conversion, while the other three techniques as a source produce more convincing conversion results than the whistle.



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