Technical note Open Access

The Enrico's Chart for Phase Noise and Two-Sample Variances

Rubiola, Enrico

Vernotte, Francois

A two-page reference card which collects formula, sketches and relevant concepts about phase noise, frequency stability, Allan variance and similar variances.

If you use phase noise and Allan variance often, you may like having a laminated front/back sample on your desk.



Copyright Statement - September 28, 2022 The Enrico's Chart for Phase Noise and Two-Sample Variances, hereinafter called "Chart," is copyright Enrico Rubiola, ORCID 0000-0002-5364-1835, home page The Chart is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License CC-BY-NC-ND. In short, you are free to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format under the following terms. ATTRIBUTION: You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the Enrico Rubiola endorses you or your use. NONCOMMERCIAL: You may not use the material for commercial purposes. NODERIVATIVES: If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material. The above summary is excerpted from the Creative Commons web site. Refer to for details of CC-BY-NC-ND license. Whoever is interested in distributing the Chart is kindly asked to do use the link to, rather than distributing the PDF file. As explained in the Zenodo web site, DOI 10.5281/zenodo.4399218 always resolves to the latest version of the document. The `NC' and `ND' copyright attributions deserve a comment. The `ND' restriction preserves the academic independence of the Chart, preventing Companies from modifying it, or from building advertisment upon it. The `NC' restriction is mainly intended to prevent selling the Chart for profit. In contrast, manufacturers of equipment for measurements in time and frequency are encouraged to distribute the Chart for free with their products. The contact address is indicated on the Enrico's web page on This work is partially funded by the Agence Nationale de Recherche (ANR) Programme d'Investissement d'Avenir under the following grants: ANR-11-EQPX-0033-OSC-IMP (Oscillator IMP project) ANR-10-LABX-48-01 (FIRST-TF network), and ANR-17-EURE-00002 (EIPHI); and by grants from the Région Bourgogne Franche Comté intended to support the above.
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