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Project deliverable Open Access

D5.1: Analysis of PBIS Requirement for ARETE


The “Analysis of PBIS requirements for ARETE” report, addresses the capture and definition of requirements for the development of Augmented Reality (AR) for a system of teaching values and behavioural expectations within the framework of Positive Behaviour Interventions and Support (PBIS).

This deliverable describes how we have explored for the first time the opportunity of converging augmented reality with behavioural teaching and learning within the preventative proactive approach of PBIS. The report lays the foundations for introducing AR into a new teaching and learning context that has human behaviour as a teaching subject through PBIS.

The report describes the research and development activities aimed at: 1) identifying the research gaps within the state of the art and 2) constructing scenarios for the use of the application with the identification of requirements and specifications of the AR objects to be developed (Task 5.1). For the implementation of Task 5.1, focus groups were held with teachers of PBIS primary schools and PBIS-experts with the aim to identify a set of specifics for designing AR objects for the PBIS-AR application. The focus groups were specifically aimed at capturing a collection of behavioural scenarios, situations, procedures, and/or routines typical to students' everyday school life needed for the implementation of the PBIS-AR application.

Subsequently, the most common PBIS school values were identified based on a scoping review of the research literature, the ideas of PBIS-experts and teachers, and a range of expectation matrices developed around the world. Based on these school values, a longlist of behavioural expectations was identified and grouped into a behavioural expectation matrix for ARETE. A reduction of this longlist was undertaken to define a set of 15 expected behaviors and/or procedures/routines useful for the development of scenarios to be implemented in the PBIS-AR app.

In order to define the final set of ARETE PBIS behavioural expectations, further input from stakeholders (i.e., teachers and students) was obtained. The planned focus groups could not be executed due to the COVID-19 pandemic and an online questionnaire regarding the state of the art of PBIS education in Europe (i.e., the PBIS in Europe or PBIS-E questionnaire) was administered to teachers and students from European PBIS schools. The questionnaire was mainly intended for the 1) validation of the shortlist of the above mentioned 15 behavioural expectations, and 2) the validation of the effectiveness of potential reinforcement systems for appropriate behaviour in students that will be used in the PBIS-AR application.

Moreover, a set of scripted behavioural lessons were designed by using the Lesson Study methodology in which small teams of teachers collaboratively worked in designing and developing the lesson series (Task 5.2) and the sequence of examples and nonexamples of appropriate behaviour necessary as input for the behavioural routines to be designed for the AR animations in the PBIS-AR app.

The report also includes activity of task 5.2 related to the design of the pilot 3 for validating these innovative teaching scenarios and studying the effect on students’ social skills and regulatory behaviour. Additional activities were carried out concerning ethical and GDPR compliance within Pilot 3 of ARETE project.

This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 856533.
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