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There is a threat of imminent abrupt and irreversible transitions in the Earth system, both on land and in the ocean. A reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and in land-use change must be implemented urgently to mitigate these changes through political, economic, and societal measures. Yet, considerable knowledge gaps remain concerning the processes underlying the dynamics of tipping elements,
Three EU funded Horizon2020 projects have been investigating tipping behaviour in the Earth system: Tipping Points in the Earth System (TiPES), Our Common Future Ocean in the Earth System (COMFORT), and Tipping Points in Antarctic Climate Components (TiPACCs). In the joint policy brief, you can find key findings of the three projects, persisting knowledge gaps as well as policy recommendations.