Poster Open Access

Citation Ethics: An Exploratory Study of Norms and Behaviors

Hosseini, Mohammad; Bruton, Sam; Macchione, Alicia

This poster presents the results of our survey of 257 US-based researchers in receipt of federal funding from the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to explore the following questions:

  • What citation behaviors are endorsed as practices that researchers should engage in?
  • What citation behaviors do researchers report engaging in?
  • What citation behaviors do researchers report that peer researchers engage in?
  • How do participants’ self-reports of citing behavior compare with their other-reports and endorsed norms?
The current project was funded by a Lucas Faculty Excellence grant, 2021-2022 and Northwestern University Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute (NUCATS, UL1TR001422)
Files (4.2 MB)
Name Size
Citation ethics-Cinci-2.JPG
4.2 MB Download
  • Baccini, De Nicolao, & Petrovich. (2019). Citation gaming induced by bibliometric evaluation: A country-level comparative analysis.

  • Mohammad Hosseini & Bert Gordijn (2020). A review of the literature on ethical issues related to scientific authorship. DOI: 10.1080/08989621.2020.1750957

  • Penders, B. (2018). Ten Simple Rules for Responsible Referencing. PLOS: Computational Biology.

  • Wright and Armstrong. (2008). The Ombudsman: Verification of Citations: Fawlty Towers of Knowledge?

All versions This version
Views 260260
Downloads 66
Data volume 24.9 MB24.9 MB
Unique views 215215
Unique downloads 66


Cite as