Preprint Open Access

Air Temperature Changes in Jerusalem

Nowarski, Joseph

Two completely different monitoring systems were applied to analyze annual air temperature differences.

The first monitoring system for analysis of changes in air temperature in Jerusalem is a meteorological station at Jerusalem University.

The second monitoring system for analysis of surface temperature changes globally and locally in Israel is applied by NASA and further analyzed and detailed by FAOSTAT.

Both monitoring systems indicate an average temperature increase since the starting year of the Jerusalem database, 1993.

The temperature difference between the year 1993 and 2021 in Jerusalem is 1.44°C, in Israel 1.52°C and global 1.09°C.

Application of 30 years linear trendlines in various periods shows a constant increase in the slope of the trendlines from  0.0209°C/y in years 1962-1991 to 0.0357°C/y in years 1992-2021 for the global change of surface temperature.

According to the most recent trendline, the temperature increase in the year 2035 compared to the 1951-1980 baseline will be 2.20°C in Jerusalem, 2.28°C in Israel, and global 1.96°C.

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  • The Government Databases / Meteorological Service

  • Geography - Surface and Air Temperature

  • GISTEMP Team, 2022: GISS Surface Temperature Analysis (GISTEMP), version 4. NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies. Dataset accessed 2022-02-05 at

  • Lenssen, N., G. Schmidt, J. Hansen, M. Menne, A. Persin, R. Ruedy, and D. Zyss, 2019: Improvements in the GISTEMP uncertainty model. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 124, no. 12, 6307-6326, doi:10.1029/2018JD029522.

  • NASA - Goddard Institute for Space Studies, GISS Surface Temperature Analysis (v4), Annual Mean Temperature Change over Land and over Ocean

  • FAOSTAT Temperature Change

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