Journal article Open Access
Taylor, Steven J.; Niemiller, Matthew L.
The subterranean amphipod genus Bactrurus (Amphipoda: Crangonyctidae) is comprised of eight species that occur in groundwater habitats in karst and glacial deposits of the central and eastern United States. We reexamine the distribution, biogeography, and conservation status of Bactrurus in light of new species distribution records and divergence time estimates in the genus from a recent molecular study. In particular, we discuss hypotheses regarding the distribution and dispersal of B. mucronatus and B. brachycaudus into previously glaciated regions of the Central Lowlands. We also conducted the first IUCN Red List conservation assessments and reassessed global NatureServe conservation ranks for each species. We identified 17 threats associated with increased extinction risk that vary in source, scope, and severity among species, with groundwater pollution being the most significant threat to all species. Our conservation assessments indicate that five of the eight species are at an elevated risk of extinction under IUCN Red List or NatureServe criteria, with one species (B. cellulanus) already extinct. However, none of the eight species are considered threatened or endangered by any state or federal agency. Significant knowledge gaps regarding the life history, ecology, and demography of each species exist. Given results of our conservation assessments and available information on threats to populations, we offer recommendations for conservation, management, and future research for each species.