Journal article Open Access
Dr Abdur Rahman Abshar
Background: Acute myocardial infarction (MI) is potentially critical and is the most common cardiac emergency to occur in a hospital. Cardiovascular risk factors for major mortality and morbidity are increasing in Pakistan. Given the lower survival, ischemic heart disease represents an important public health problem.
Purpose and aim: The aim of the study is to determine the frequency of various conventional risk factors in patients with myocardial infarction and to guide our planning for primary and secondary prevention of this disease in our society.
Methodology: A total of 100 consecutive patients with MI aged 20 to 80 years were included in the study. A detailed history including admission symptoms was taken, and risk factors were evaluated with the help of history and laboratory examinations. The following common risk factors, namely gender, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, family history, and obesity were examined.
Results: Frequency risk factors were listed as male gender (74%), smoking (70%), hypertension (62%), diabetes mellitus (60%), hyperlipidemia (44%), family history (40%), and obesity. (14%). Of these risk factors, 48% of the patients had at least one major risk factor, 23% had two major risk factors, and 29% had three or more major risk factors.
Conclusion: Smoking, hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia were the main modifiable risk factors requiring better control in our patients. Public awareness of risk factors is low. Therefore, there is an urgent need to raise awareness about preventive aspects and healthier lifestyles in our society.
Key words: ischemic heart disease, risk factors, morbidity, coronary artery disease.