Journal article Open Access

Estimation of Rainfall-Runoff Relationship and Correlation of Runoff with Infiltration Capacity and Temperature Over East Singhbhum District of Jharkhand

Radhika Kumari; Mohit Mayoor; Somnath Mahapatra; P.K. Parhi; H.P. Singh

Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication(BEIESP)

In meteorology, Precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under the gravity, the rainfall being the principal form of precipitation in India. Rainfall is the most important meteorological parameter for hydrology, as it controls the other processes such as infiltration, runoff, detention storage, and evapotranspiration. When precipitation falls over a catchment area, these processes have to be satisfied before precipitation water becomes runoff. Infiltration is the vertically downward flow of rainfall into ground/underground through percolation inside the soil surface and depends on soil-type, porosity, and permeability. Runoff is the flow of rainwater over the land surface that happens when there is an excess of precipitation over an area. Runoff is produced when the rainwater exceeds the infiltration capacity of the soil. The most important relationships for any watershed are the relationship between rainfall and runoff. This relationship depends on some factors such as characteristics of rainfall, runoff, and infiltration. Though the abovementioned factors have a major impact on the volume of runoff, a consistent correlation between rainfall-runoff enables us to increase more confidence in sufficient time for the formulation of appropriate decision making for the local authority. The present research work was undertaken to analyze the correlation between annual rainfall and annual runoff for the years 1901-2018 over Jamshedpur of East Singh bhum district, Jharkhand. Further in this study, the correlation between infiltration and annual runoff was analyzed over the same area and the same data period. Correlation between temperature and annual runoff was also found. Through the graphical analysis, it was found that the value of annual rainfall and runoff are strongly correlated. As the value of the Pearson correlation coefficient (r) is almost equal to +1 which is a nearly perfect positive correlation, signifies that both variables move in the same direction. It also signifies that the two variables being compared have a perfect positive relationship; that means these two are strongly related. Through the study, it was also found that the infiltration and runoff are largely correlated. There was practically no correlation found between the values of temperature and runoff over the years.

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