Conference paper Open Access
Silvério, João; Huang, Yanlong; Abu-Dakka, Fares J.; Rozo, Leonel; Caldwell, Darwin G.
During the past few years, probabilistic approaches to imitation learning have earned a relevant place in the robotics literature. One of their most prominent features is that, in addition to extracting a mean trajectory from task demonstrations, they provide a variance estimation. The intuitive meaning of this variance, however, changes across different techniques, indicating either variability or uncertainty. In this paper we leverage kernelized movement primitives (KMP) to provide a new perspective on imitation learning by predicting variability, correlations and uncertainty using a single model. This rich set of information is used in combination with the fusion of optimal controllers to learn robot actions from data, with two main advantages: i) robots become safe when uncertain about their actions and ii) they are able to leverage partial demonstrations, given as elementary sub-tasks, to optimally perform a higher level, more complex task. We showcase our approach in a painting task, where a human user and a KUKA robot collaborate to paint a wooden board. The task is divided into two sub-tasks and we show that the robot becomes compliant (hence safe) outside the training regions and executes the two sub-tasks with optimal gains otherwise.