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Intestinal Parasites and HIV Co-infections in Mogadishu (Somalia): A Retrospective Evaluation of Four-Year Follow-up Data

Nur Adan, Faduma; Muse Osman, Marian; Bashir, Ahmed Muhammad; Aygar, İsmail Selçuk; Er, Sadettin; Sarı, Oktay; Bahçeci, Onur; Hoşbul, Tuğrul; Savaşçı, Ümit; Adam Moussa, Mahamat; Şahiner, Fatih

Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate the frequency and distribution characteristics of intestinal parasites and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositivity in children and adults presenting to a tertiary care hospital in Mogadishu, Somalia. The study included the results of all parasitological stool examinations conducted between November 2015 and November 2019. In addition, the HIV serological status of individuals was retrospectively analyzed. During the four-year study period, at least one intestinal parasite was found in stool samples from 1,538 (6.23%) of 24,676 individuals. A total of 1,570 intestinal parasites were detected in 1,538 patients (42.5% aged 10 years and under), including 44 parasites in mixed infections and 20 parasites in 10 patients at different times. The most common intestinal parasite was Giardia lamblia (n=730, 46.5%), followed by Entamoeba histolytica (n=677, 43.1%), Ascaris lumbricoides (n=30, 1.9%), Hymenolepis nana (n=28, 1.78%), Trichomonas hominis (n=26, 1.66%), Trichuris trichiura (n=26, 1.66%), and eight other species (n=53, 3.38%). HIV seropositivity was present in 1.12% (4/358) of the patients with parasitic infections and 0.39% (23/5868) of those with a negative stool test (p=0.0655). Intestinal parasitic infections increased in December and January. A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura were significantly increased in patients from refugee camps. This study included the most comprehensive data on the distribution and characteristics of intestinal parasitic infections and HIV seroprevalence in Somalia over the last 30 years. We consider that these data will contribute to the risk analysis and planning of preventive health policies.

Özet

Bu çalışmada Somali Mogadişu’da bulunan bir üçüncü basamak hastanesine başvuran çocuk ve yetişkinlerde intestinal parazitlerinin görülme sıklığı ve dağılım özellikleri ile insan immün yetmezlik virusu (HIV) seropozitifliğinin değerlendirilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Çalışma, Kasım 2015 ile Kasım 2019 arasında yapılan tüm parazitolojik dışkı incelemelerinin sonuçlarını içermektedir. Ek olarak, bireylerin HIV serolojik durumları retrospektif olarak incelenmiştir. Dört yıllık çalışma süresi boyunca, 24.676 kişiden 1.538'inin (%6.23) dışkı örneklerinde en az bir intestinal parazit varlığı bulundu. Çoklu enfeksiyonlarda 44 parazit ve 10 hastada farklı zamanlarda saptanan 20 parazit dahil olmak üzere 1.538 hastada (%42.5'i 10 yaş ve altı) toplam 1.570 intestinal parazit tespit edildi. En yaygın tespit edilen intestinal parazit Giardia lamblia 730 (%46.5) iken, diğerleri sırasıyla Entamoeba histolytica 677 (%43.1), Ascaris lumbricoides 30 (%1.9), Hymenolepis nana 28 (%1.78), Trichomonas hominis 26 (%1.66), Trichuris trichiura 26 (%1.66) ve diğer sekiz tür (n=53, %3.38) idi. Paraziter enfeksiyonu olan hastaların %1,12'sinde (4/358), dışkı testi negatif olanların ise %0,39'unda (23/5868) HIV seropozitifliği mevcuttu (p=0,0655). İntestinal parazit enfeksiyonları Aralık ve Ocak aylarında artmıştı. A. lumbricoides ve T. trichiura mülteci kamplarından gelen hastalarda önemli oranda yüksekti. Bu çalışma, Somali'de intestinal paraziter enfeksiyonların dağılımı ve özellikleri ile HIV seroprevalansı hakkında son 30 yıldaki en kapsamlı verileri içermektedir. Bu verilerin risk analizine ve koruyucu sağlık politikalarının planlanmasına katkı sağlayacağını düşünüyoruz.

Mogadişu'da (Somali) İntestinal Parazitler ve HIV Ko-enfeksiyonları: Dört Yıllık Takip Verilerinin Retrospektif Değerlendirmesi
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