Journal article Open Access

Modeling and Designed of a Monopole Antenna that Operate at 3.3 [GHz] for Future 5G sub 6 [GHz]

Gholam D Aghashirin; MagedKafafy; Hoda S. Abdel-Aty-Zohdy; Mohamed A. Zohdy,; Adam Timmons

Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering and Sciences Publication(BEIESP)

Antenna unit is an importantpart of ADAS L2, L2+ and Automated Driving L3 systems. It needs to function as needed in dGPS, HD Map Correction Services, OEM Radios and Navigation Systems. The presented monopoleantenna model for 5G below 6 [GHz] operating at 3.3 [GHz] is developed. This work demonstrates the modeling, design, and determining of monopoleantenna with intended targeted applications within the automotive system emerging autonomous vehicles space and as well as 5G Wireless Cellular Technology domain. FEKO simulation is undertaken rather than mathematical modeling to create the structure and conduct the analysis of the proposed monopole antenna.In order to support the fifth generation (5G) of wireless communication networks, SOS messages, vehicle tracking, remote vehicle start, Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) L2, L2+/ Autonomous Driving (AD) L3 systems self-driving vehicles powered by 5G with rapidly growing sets of ADAS and AD features and functions within the autonomous space, USA cellular carriers mobile phone communication standard 4G MISO and 5G MIMO, LTE1, LTE2, connected functions, features/services, IoT, DSRC, V2X, and C-V2X applications and 5G enable vehicles destined for the NAFTA (USA, Canada and Mexico) market, a new single monopole antenna that operate at 3.3 [GHz] for future 5G (MIMO) below 6 [GHz] modeling, design and simulation with intended automotive applicability and applications is proposed. The presented novel new 5G below 6 [GHz] monopoleantenna: 1. Is not being investigated on the literatures review and published papers studied. 2. No paper exists on these frequency bands. 3. The desired monopole antenna is a new antenna with fewer components, reduction in size, low profile, competitive cost, better response to received RF signals for frequencies for future 5G below 6 [GHz] with each of the following: a. Range of operating frequencies, 0.6 [GHz] to 5.9256 [GHz]. b. Centerfrequency = 3.2628 [GHz] ~ 3.3 [GHz] for the above band. c. Lambda (λ) = (3.0 x10^8 [m/sec^2])/(3.3x10^9 [Hz])=0.090 [m] = 90 [mm], lambda (λ) /4 = (0.090 [m])/4=0.0225 [m]=22.5 mm ~ 23 [mm], the overall monopole antenna height. Manuscript received on June 15, 2021. Revised Manuscript received on June 18, 2021. Manuscript published on June 30, 2021. * Correspondence Author Gholam D Aghashirin*, Departmentof Electrical & Computer Engineering, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan, USA Maged Kafafy, Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan, USA Hoda S. Abdel-Aty-Zohdy, Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan, USA Mohamed A. Zohdy, Departmentof Electrical & Computer Engineering, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan, USA Adam Timmons, Departmentof Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada. © The Authors. Published by Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering and Sciences Publication (BEIESP). This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license ( To be more direct, simulation studies are carried out and are done utilizing FEKO software package from Altair to model the proposed monopole antenna for 5G below 6 [GHz] frequency band. The focus is on the frequency band for 5G sub 6 [GHz] cellular system. The paper will introduce the following key points: 1. Modelled and anayzed single element 5G sub 6 [GHz] monopole antenna. 2. Student version of CAD FEKO program was used to design our desired monopole antenna with a wire feed excitation coupled with step-by-step instructions is undertaken to highlight the model geometry creation of our monopole antenna. POST FEKO program is used to plot and view our simulation results. 3. We report the development of 5G below 6 [GHz] for fifth generation (5G) system that meets automotive and vehicle homologation specification requirement of antenna height < 70 [mm]. So that the proposed monopole antenna can easly be integrated into multi tuned cellular antenna system. 4. The FEKO simulation is conducted in 2D and 3D element model, in terms of Far-Field Vertical Gain as a function of an Elevation Angle plots. 5. Future research work and study for the next steps will be recommended.

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