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SIMMONS, NANCY B.; CONWAY, TENLEY M.
present in both species of Noctilio, both spe- m3) are present in all species of Pteronotus cies of Mystacina, both species of Macrotus, and Mormoops (figs. 4, 6). These teeth are and Artibeus jamaicensis. In contrast, p3 is also present in most of the outgroups. In conabsent in Saccopteryx bilineata (Simmons trast, M3 and m3 are both absent in Artibeus and Handley, 1998). jamaicensis. Unlike the situation with the in-
Character 42: Lower p3 with one root cisors and premolars, where evolution in the (0); or with two roots (1). The lower third upper and lower dentitions appears decoupremolar p3 is a single-rooted tooth in all pled, changes in the upper and lower molar species of Pteronotus. In contrast, this tooth dentition are correlated among our taxa. Achas two roots in both species of Mormoops. cordingly, we treated absence of M3/m3 as Among the outgroups, p3 is single-rooted in a single character. both species of Noctilio, both species of Mys- Character 46: Lower first and second motacina robusta, and Artibeus jamaicensis, but lars (m1 and m2) myotodont (0); or nyctalthis tooth has two roots in both species of odont (1); or modified for fruit feeding, cusps Macrotus. This character was scored ''-'' in and cristids not distinct (2). As discussed by Saccopteryx bilineata, which lacks p3 (see Simmons and Geisler (1998), morphology of character 41). the talonid of the lower first and second mo-
Character 43: Crown length of lower p3 lars (m1 and m2) varies among bats. Most and p4 subequal (0); or p3 reduced, crown extant species have lower molar teeth in length of p3 less than or equal to one-half which the hypoconulid lies adjacent to the the crown length of p4 (1). Crown length of entoconid on the lingual edge of the tooth. the lower p3 and p4 are approximately sub- Menu and Sige (1971) distinguished two equal in both species of Mormoops. In con- forms of the talonid that occur among these trast, p3 is reduced to a peglike tooth whose taxa: the postcristid (which originates from crown length is less than or equal to one-half hypoconid) may either connect with the hythe crown length of p4 in all species of Pter- poconulid (a condition described as ''nyctalonotus (fig. 6). Among the outgroups, p3 and odonty'') or bypass the hypoconulid to conp4 are subequal in both species of Mystacina, nect with the entoconid (''myotodonty''). Artibeus jamaicensis, and both species of Pteronotus parnellii, P. davyi, P. gymnono- Macrotus, while p3 is reduced (crown length tus, and P. pristinus have myotodont lower approximately one-half the length of p4) in molars (fig. 6). In contrast, P. macleayii, P. both species Noctilio. This character was quadridens, P. personatus, and both species scored ''-'' in Saccopteryx bilineata, which of Mormoops have nyctalodont lower molars lacks p3 (see character 41). (fig. 6). Among the outgroups, Saccopteryx
Character 44: No cuspule present on pre- bilineata is nyctalodont, but both species of metacrista on M1 and M2 (0); or cuspule Mystacina, both species of Noctilio, and both present (1). The premetacrista is a crestlike species of Macrotus have myotodont lower ridge that connects the mesostyle and meta- molars. Artibeus jamaicensis has molar teeth cone on the upper molars A small cuspule is that have been modified for frugivory in such present on the labial premetacrista in Pter- a way that the cusps and cristids are no lononotus personatus. In contrast, no cuspule is ger distinct. present in this position in Mormoops or any Character 47: Cristid obliqua on lower other species of Pteronotus. A cuspule is first and second molars (m1 and m2) extends similarly lacking on the premetacrista in Sac- from hypoconid to middle of posterior wall copteryx bilineata, both species of Noctilio, of protocristid (0); or extends from hypoconboth species of Mystacina, and both species id to metaconid (1). As noted by Czaplewski of Macrotus. Artibeus cannot be scored for (1997), the cristid obliqua on the lower first this character due to modification of the mo- and second molars (m1 and m2) extends lar teeth for frugivory, so this taxon is scored from hypoconid to middle of posterior wall ''-'' for this character. of protocristid in most bats. This condition
2001 SIMMONS AND CONWAY: PHYLOGENY OF MORMOOPID BATS 29