Working paper Open Access
[Note-1: The new edits of this version 11 are typed in magenta font]
[Note-2: Erratum: It should be 0=< in expressions 332 and 333]
Abstract: New work provides compelling evidence for a genuine re-appraisal of an old way to explain gravity, which has been sidelined in the periphery of science for a long time. A novel quantitative push gravity theory has been advanced on the basis of a set of primary principles (postulates), from which the derivation of classical acceleration and force by stationary massive bodies in the steady state is possible. In contrast to prior conceptions, it is shown that the absorption of gravity particles by matter need not be extremely weak and linear, in order to derive and explain the observed classical laws of gravity. Any value of the absorption coefficient by a uniform spherical mass produces a gravitational field obeying the inverse square of distance law. The gravitational constant (big G), is itself a function of the ratio of the absorption coefficient over the density of matter. The latter ratio (mass attenuation coefficient) now becomes the new universal gravitational constant of the cosmos, whilst G can vary in different locations of the universe. The measured mass of planets and stars is only an effective or apparent mass actually smaller than the real mass due to a self-shadowing or shielding effect of the absorption of gravitational particles. Any given mass appears quantitatively different depending on its spatial distribution. We now find that Newton's gravitational law uses only the apparent (or effective) masses with a potentially variable G, but the inverse square distance relationship is locally preserved in the cosmos. The radiant flux of energetic particles being uniform over a region of space creates a maximum acceleration of gravity for all material bodies in that region, so that any further mass accretion over a certain upper limit does not create additional acceleration; this limit is reached when practically all gravitational particles are absorbed (saturation state) by the massive body above a saturation mass. The latter limit should be measurable, for which some tentative situations and experiments are proposed for prospective experiments and tests. The internal field of a spherical mass and the external field of a two layered sphere have been derived. The superposition principle of gravity fields has been reformulated and the Allais effect explained and calculated. The equivalence principle can now be properly understood and explained in a way that the principle per se becomes redundant under the theory being self-consistent. Matter, inertia and mass can be properly defined and understood. For moving bodies, the established relationships from special and general relativity may continue to operate within the gravitational fields created by push particles, but may need to be adapted and re-aligned within the greater framework of push gravity principles operating at any distance. These advances constitute the main part of this report purported to become a valid mathematical formulation for a basic physical interpretation or embodiment of gravity poised for verification. An attempt is made to overcome the main remaining objection of presumed catastrophic thermal accretion of absorbed particles. A further attempt is made also for the push-gravity principles to explain the vastly higher intensity gravitational fields of white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes. It is proposed that the field of white dwarf stars is created also by push particles but of a different kind, namely, by those responsible for mediating the electric field. In the same way, the field of neutron stars is created by yet a third kind of push particles, namely, those responsible for mediating the nuclear field. The effective mass attenuation coefficient is variable around those massive bodies. In general, push particles may exist with different energy (or mass) having different mean free paths as they traverse different concentrations of masses like black holes, neutron stars, dwarfs, stars, planets, ordinary masses, atoms, nuclei, protons and all the known or unknown sub-nuclear particles. The invariable principle of momentum transfer (push) by particles directly relating to their absorption rate by the various concentrations (density) of masses could be the basis and the starting principle for a prospective unification theory of everything. Further work seems to explain a common underlying mechanism manifesting itself as effective mass and force, both of which are caused by the rate of push particles absorption. Intrinsic effective mass of lone bodies and variable effective mass of interacting bodies are liaised with a force always obeying the inverse square distance law. The general constitutional equations of push gravity are now provided. The electron radius can be found by this theory. A push electricity theory is initiated providing the general framework for a unification of gravitational and electric fields. Action, reaction, mass accretion during acceleration and mass dependence on velocity are investigated for a rocket system and for falling spheres system. Vortex fluid mechanics is introduced for improved electron/positron modeling.
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