Dataset Open Access


Iqbal, Turab; Cao, Yin; Bailey, Andrew; Plumbley, Mark D.; Wang, Wenwu

ARCA23K is a dataset of labelled sound events created to investigate real-world label noise. It contains 23,727 audio clips originating from Freesound, and each clip belongs to one of 70 classes taken from the AudioSet ontology. The dataset was created using an entirely automated process with no manual verification of the data. For this reason, many clips are expected to be labelled incorrectly.

In addition to ARCA23K, this release includes a companion dataset called ARCA23K-FSD, which is a single-label subset of the FSD50K dataset. ARCA23K-FSD contains the same sound classes as ARCA23K and the same number of audio clips per class. As it is a subset of FSD50K, each clip and its label have been manually verified. Note that only the ground truth data of ARCA23K-FSD is distributed in this release. To download the audio clips, please visit the Zenodo page for FSD50K.

The source code used to create the datasets is available:



  • ARCA23K(-FSD) is divided into:
    • A training set containing 17,979 clips (39.6 hours for ARCA23K).
    • A validation set containing 2,264 clips (5.0 hours).
    • A test test containing 3,484 clips (7.3 hours).
  • There are 70 sound classes in total. Each class belongs to the AudioSet ontology.
  • Each audio clip was sourced from the Freesound database. Other than format conversions (e.g. resampling), the audio clips have not been modified.
  • The duration of the audio clips varies from 0.3 seconds to 30 seconds.
  • All audio clips are mono 16-bit WAV files sampled at 44.1 kHz.


License and Attribution

This release is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

The audio clips distributed as part of ARCA23K were sourced from Freesound and have their own Creative Commons license. The license information and attribution for each audio clip can be found in ARCA23K.metadata/train.json, which also includes the original Freesound URLs.

The files under ARCA23K-FSD.ground_truth/ are an adaptation of the ground truth data provided as part of FSD50K, which is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The curators of FSD50K are Eduardo Fonseca, Xavier Favory, Jordi Pons, Mercedes Collado, Ceren Can, Rachit Gupta, Javier Arredondo, Gary Avendano, and Sara Fernandez.

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