Taxonomic treatment Open Access

Strobilanthes violifolia T. Anderson 1867

Albertson, Winston D.; Wood, Hn. R. I.

Strobilanthes violifolia T. Anderson (1867: 485). Lectotype (designated here): INDIA. Sikkim, Ratong to

Yoksum, 25–5000', T. Anderson 1051 (CAL0000019841!). Figure 5B.

Pteracanthus violifolius (T. Anderson) Bremekamp (1944: 200).

Echinacanthus parviflorus T. Anderson (1867: 459), non Strobilanthes parviflora Beddome (1874). Lectotype (selected by Wood, 1994): INDIA. Meghalaya, Griffith s.n. (K!).

Clarkeasia parviflora (T. Anderson) J.R.I. Wood (1994: 189).

Echinacanthus andersonii C.B. Clarke (1884: 415). Syntypes: India, Darjeeling, C. B. Clarke 13633 (BM!, CAL, K!).

Echinacanthus andersonii var. viscosus C.B. Clarke (1884: 415). Holotype: India, Sikkim, C.B. Clarke 25468 (K!, isotypes BM!, CAL!).

Echinacanthus longistylus C.B. Clarke (1884: 415). Syntypes: India, Darjeeling, C. B. Clarke 13845 (K!, BM!).

Echinacanthus pumilio C.B. Clarke (1884: 415). Holotype: India, Meghalaya, C. B. Clarke 17801 (K!, isotypes BM!, CAL!).

Echinacanthus siamensis Imlay (1939: 114). Holotype: Thailand, Nan, A. F. G. Kerr 4944 (K!).

Clarkeasia parviflora var. albescens Wood (1994: 191), synon. nov. Holotype: West Bengal Duars. Brandis s.n. (K!)

This species was treated as Clarkeasia parviflora (T. Anderson) J.R.I. Wood by Wood (1994: 189) but based on subsequent molecular and morphological studies (Carine & Scotland 2002: Moylan et al. 2004), it is clear that the genus Clarkeasia should be included within Strobilanthes, where the oldest available name is S. violifolia. Strobilanthes violifolia is, in fact, sister to Aechmanthera gossypina (Wallich) Nees (Moylan et al. 2004: 732), a species already transferred to Strobilanthes as S. tomentosa (Nees) J.R.I. Wood (Wood & Scotland 2009: 16). The sheet annotated by Anderson at CAL is selected here as the lectotype as we cannot locate any other specimen at K or elsewhere that can be considered for lectotypification.

Var. albescens of Clarkeasia parviflora is included in the synonomy as it has no clear geographical patterning and is probably analagous to the lanate forms of Strobilanthes tomentosa (Nees) J.R.I. Wood, treated as a synonym of that species by Wood & Scotland (2009: 21), who postulate that that the white-felt indumentum represents a developmental stage. Given that Strobilanthes violifolia and A. tomentosa are sister species (Moylan et al. 2004) and that at least one intermediate is known (Grey-Wilson & Phillips (K) from Nepal), similar developmental traits in both species might not be unexpected.

Strobilanthes violifolia is quite widely distributed being recorded from Nepal, Bhutan, India (Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, West Bengal, Meghalaya and Manipur) and Thailand (Nan and Kanchanaburi). Its absence from Myanmar is curious and it might be expected to be found there.

Published as part of Albertson, Winston D. & Wood, Hn. R. I., 2012, Forgotten types of Strobilanthes (Acanthaceae) in The Central National Herbarium, Kolkata, India, pp. 49-60 in Phytotaxa 43 on page 58, DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.43.1.2,
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  • September 1864. Bishop's College Press, Calcutta. Anderson, T. (1867) An Enumeration of the Indian species of Acanthaceae. Journal of the Linnean Society 9: 425 - 526. Beddome (1874) Icones plantarum Indiae orientalis. Gantz Brothers, Madras & J. van Voorst, London. Bennett, J. R. & Scotland, R. W. (2003) A revision of Strobilanthes (Acanthaceae) in Java. Kew Bulletin 58: 1 - 82. Bentham, G. (1853) Florula Hongkongensis. In Hooker's Journal of Botany and Kew Garden Miscellany 5: 131 Bentham, G. (1861) Flora Hongkongensis. Lovell Reeve, London. Biswas, K. (1934) Strobilanthes furcatus K. Biswas. Assam Forest Records, Botany 1: 23 - 25. Blume, C. L. (1826) Bijdragen tot de Flora van Nederlandsch Indie. Batavia. Bremekamp, C. E. B. (1944) Materials for a monograph of the Strobilanthinae. Verhandelingen der Nederlandsche

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  • unclassifiable? Taxon 51: 259 - 279. Clarke, C. B. (1884) Acanthaceae. In J. D. Hooker, Flora of British India 4: 387 - 558. L. Reeve & Co, London. Clarke, C. B. (1908). In C. C. Hosseus, Die aus Siam bekannten Acanthaceen. Botanische Jahrbucher 41: 62 - 73. Desmond, R. (1992) The European Discovery of the Indian Flora. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and Oxford University

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  • Moylan, E. C., Bennett, J. R. Carine, M. A., Olmstead, R. G. & Scotland, R. W. (2004) Phylogenetic relationships amongst Strobilanthes s. l. (Acanthaceae): evidence from ITS nrDNA, TraL-F cpDNA and morphology. American Journal of Botany 91: 724 - 735.

  • Wood, J. R. I. & Scotland, R. W. (2009) New and little-known species of Strobilanthes (Acanthaceae) from India and South East Asia. Kew Bulletin 64: 3 - 47.

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