Dataset Open Access

Content analysis dataset of health and science-related hoaxes during COVID-19 in Spain

Bienvenido León; Pilar Martínez-Costa; Ramón Salaverría; Ignacio López-Goñi

This dataset contains the coding of content analysis of a sample of hoaxes debunked by three fact checkers in Spain (N = 533): (N = 327), Newtral (N = 143), and EFE Verifica (N = 63). Coding includes de following variables:

       0. Subject of the hoax: science/health, politics/government, other. 

  1. Platform used to spread the hoax: networks (in general), Twitter, Facebook, WhatsApp, Instagram, YouTube, and others.
  2. Formats used: text, audio, image, video, other.
  3. Geographical scope: local, national, international, unspecified/not applicable.
  4. Type of hoax: joke, exaggeration, decontextualization, deception.
  5. Topic of hoaxes related to science/health: scientific research, scientific policy and health management, advice issued to the public, and others.
  6. Topic of hoaxes related to scientific research: origin of the virus, transmissibility, fatality rate, treatments, vaccines, etc.
  7. Source type: anonymous, spoofed, fictitious, real.
  8. Non-anonymous sources: members of the public, business, government, professional, healthcare/science.
  9. Type of healthcare/science sources: researchers, international scientific organizations, national scientific organizations, health professionals, and others.
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