Journal article Open Access

The Past, Present, and Future of Breast Cancer Models for Nanomedicine Development

Boix-Montesinos, Paz; Soriano-Teruel, Paula M; Armiñán, Ana; Orzáez, Mar; Vicent, María J

Even given recent advances in nanomedicine development of breast cancer treatment in recent years and promising results in pre-clinical models, cancer nanomedicines often fail at the clinical trial stage. Limitations of conventional in vitro models include the lack of representation of the stromal population, the absence of a three-dimensional (3D) structure, and a poor representation of inter-tumor and intra-tumor heterogeneity. Herein, we review those cell culture strategies that aim to overcome these limitations, including cell co-cultures, advanced 3D cell cultures, patient-derived cells, bioprinting, and microfluidics systems. The in vivo evaluation of nanomedicines must consider critical parameters that include the enhanced permeability and retention effect, the host's immune status, and the site of tumor implantation. Here, we critically discuss the advantages and limitations of current in vivo models and report how the improved selection and application of breast cancer models can improve the clinical translation of nanomedicines.

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