Dataset Open Access

Vertical profiles time series of bird density and flight speed vector (01.01.2018-01.01.2019)

Nussbaumer, Raphaël

Gravey, Mathieu; Schmid, Baptiste; Benoit, Lionel; Liechti, Felix; Bauer, Silke


This dataset contains the vertical profiles and integrated time series of bird density and flight speed (NS and EW) generated and used in Nussbaumer (2021a) and Nussbaumer (2021b). Data are stored in a JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) file for each radar, with the following structure:

   "name"        : "bejab", // Code name of the radar (
   "lat"         : 51.1917, // Latitude
   "lon"         : 3.0642, // Longitude
   "height"      : 50, // Elevation of the radar antenna [m] a.s.l.
   "heightDEM"   : 0, // Elevation of the ground [m] a.s.l.
   "dens"        : [[...],...], // Bird density [birds/km3]
   "sd_vvp"      : [[...],...], // Radial velocity standard deviation
   "densSIMmean" : [[...],...], // Average bird density over 30 simulation over first elevation bins. (see [reference] for more details). [birds/km3]
   "bird"        : [[...],...], // Bird proportion (0-1)(see [reference] for more details) [-]
   "insect"      : [[...],...], // Insect proportion (0-1) (see [reference] for more details) [-]
   "ub"          : [[...],...], // Bird flight speed in East(+)/West(-) [m/s]
   "vb"          : [[...],...], // Bird flight speed in North(+)/South(-) [m/s]
   "ui"          : [[...],...], // Insect flight speed in East(+)/West(-) [m/s]
   "vi"          : [[...],...], // Insect flight speed in North(+)/South(-) [m/s]
   "uw"          : [[...],...], // Wind speed in East(+)/West(-) [m/s]
   "vw"          : [[...],...], // Wind speed in North(+)/South(-) [m/s]
   "volDir"      : [[...],...], //Normalised volume of air available for flight [m] (see [reference] for more details)
   "denss"        : [...], // Vertically Integrated bird density [birds/km2]
   "ubs"          : [...], // Vertically Integrated bird flight speed in East(+)/West(-) [m/s]
   "vbs"          : [...], // Vertically Integrated bird flight speed in North(+)/South(-) [m/s]

Two dimensional dataset (array of arrays) are given as time x elevation (25x45592) where time is provided as another JSON file included in the archive and elevation bins are centred at [100, 300, 500 , ... , 4900]. Note that the data are rounded at the second decimal place.


The procedure is explained in details in the Supplementary Material of Nussbaumer (2021a)  and the code is available on the Github repository

Cleaning of insect contamination is explained in Nussbaumer (2021b).


Files (320.8 MB)
Name Size
320.8 MB Download
  • Dokter, A.M.; Liechti, F.; Stark, H.; Delobbe, L.; Tabary, P.; Holleman, I. Bird migration flight altitudes studied by a network of operational weather radars. J. R. Soc. Interface 2011, 8, 30–43.

  • Nussbaumer, Raphaël, Silke Bauer, Lionel Benoit, Grégoire Mariethoz, Felix Liechti, and Baptiste Schmid. 2021. "Quantifying Year-Round Nocturnal Bird Migration with a Fluid Dynamics Model." Journal of The Royal Society Interface 18(179):20210194. doi: 10.1098/rsif.2021.0194.

  • Nussbaumer, R.; Benoit, L.; Mariethoz, G.; Liechti, F.; Bauer, S.; Schmid, B. A Geostatistical Approach to Estimate High Resolution Nocturnal Bird Migration Densities from a Weather Radar Network. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 2233.

  • Nussbaumer, Raphaël, Baptiste Schmid, Silke Bauer, and Felix Liechti. 2021. "A Gaussian Mixture Model to Separate Birds and Insects in Single-Polarization Weather Radar Data." Remote Sensing 13(10):1989. doi: 10.3390/rs13101989.

All versions This version
Views 264164
Downloads 2914
Data volume 8.5 GB4.5 GB
Unique views 212128
Unique downloads 2412


Cite as